Qualitative and quantitative aspects of sunflower pollen in relation to genetic material used
Roxana SPULBER1,2, Nicoleta ION1
1Beekeeping Research and Development Institute, 42 Ficusului Blvd, 011464, Bucharest-1, Romania
2University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Biotechnology, 59 Marasti Blvd, 011464, Bucharest-1, Romania
Key words: pollen, sunflower, hybrids, self-autofertility
Current sunflower hybrids have a considerable genetic variation in terms of self-fertility, and it is obvious that breeders brought significant changes, even radical, to morphological and functional characteristics of the tubular flowers from sunflower head, including pollen also. In addition to the fundamental role that pollen plays in the life of sunflower plant, pollen plays some importance in the nutrition of honeybees taking into account that sunflower is the main melliferous plant in the summer.
The samples of pollen were taken from five sunflower hybrids, respectively Favorit, Performer, LG 56.62, P64LE19 and Pro 144. The first two hybrids belong to the old generation of hybrids (created 20 years ago), while last three hybrids belong to the new generations of hybrids (created 10 years ago). The hybrids of sunflower were cultivated in field experiments within the experimental farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest.
For each hybrid of sunflower, determinations on quality pollen, and a correlation between pollen amount per flower and self-fertility were carried out. In addition, some morphological aspects of the flowers were tracked under magnifying glass.
Our results showed that crude protein has not recorded significant differences between hybrids, but we obtained differences between hybrids regarding the amount of ash and total sugar. Pollen yield has varied between 0,41 and 0,76 mg pollen/flower. To highlight the influence of genetic over years on the pollen of sunflower, our data obtained on hybrids pollen were compared with data on varieties pollen existed in literature.