DETECTION OF NOSEMA PATHOGENS IN THE APIARIES OF THE TYUMEN REGION, RUSSIA
All-Russian Institute of Veterinary Entomology and Arachnology
For the first time the nosema pathogen was noticed by Dongoff-Leuckart in 1857, who took them for fungal spores. In 1863 Leydik revealed their similarity in form with spores of pebriny of silkworm Nosema bombycis. Russian mycologist N.V. Sorokin in 1882 showed, that they are cause of bee colonies death. He found many broadly oval spores from dead bees. Their size was 6 μm long and 2-3 μm wide. In his book “The vegetation parasites of people and animals” he named the pathogen disease Saccharomyces apium Sorok. and described it.
E. Zander in 1909 has described Nosema apis. Later a new pathogen – Nosema ceranae, isolated from the Apis cerana, was described by Fries et al in 1996. Further studies showed N. ceranae is a globally dispersed pathogen of A. mellifera by Klee et al., 2007; Williams et al., 2009; Fries, 2010; Yoshiyama, Kimura, 2011 and others.
Microsporidian infections of A. mellifera are usual in Tyumen region and disease symptoms were observed in colonies during the last 40 years regularly. In the period 2005to2010 we studied samples of bees from 106 apiaries in our region. 76.5% samples were infected with Nosema. (Domatskaya et al., 2010). In 2012 we studied 175 samples from 25 apiaries, which of 20 apiaries were infected with these pathogens. N. apis was identified in 44 samples from 9 apiaries. In 42 samples from 9 apiaries we found N. ceranae, and in 4 samples from two apiaries both pathogens were registered. In 2013 we studied 238 samples from 27 apiaries, which of are 6 apiaries N. ceranae and two apiaries both pathogens were discovered. In 2014 we inspected 15 apiaries, which of 5 apiaries were identified N. ceranae, and we found N. apis and N. ceranae in one apiary only. Our data suggests that apiaries quantity are reduced which Nosema apis can be find in the Tyumen region.