2. Anatomy

Table 1 summarises the external and internal anatomy of the honey bee. The list of structures is not exhaustive, but is presented based on the structures discussed in the text and shown in the figures and plates of Dade (1962), which are reproduced here for reference using his original numbering. Only notable muscles, tergites, sternites, ganglia, and other “minor” or “repeated” structures labelled in the figures or plates are included in the table. Most information regarding structure definition or function is from Dade (1962) but supplemented with information from Goodman (2003), the social insect anatomy glossaries at antbase.org (2008) and the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology Portal (2013). If column 2 shows “not labelled”, the structure is not labelled in any plate or figure, though we felt it necessary to define. Though unlabelled, the plate or figure where the structure is shown is included in column 2. If “not shown”, then the structure is not shown in any plate or figure, but is worth mentioning nonetheless. We list in column 3 the caste(s) in Dade (1962) figures or plates for which the structures are shown. “Generic” means that the image is presented stylized for two or more castes. For example, the abdomen is shown for the drone, worker and queen in different figures or plates. However it is shown generically (no specific caste) in other figures or plates. Columns 4 and 5 list the life stage (egg, embryo, larva, prepupa, pupa, adult) and structure location (head, thorax and/or abdomen and internal/external) shown in the figures or plates. That does not mean the structures are unique to that life stage or figure or plate, only that they were presented as such in Dade (1962).


Table 1.
External and internal anatomy of the honey bee. The figure and plate numbers apply both to this paper and to Dade (1962).

Structure: singular(plural)

Figures (F) or Plates (P) where labelled

Caste presented in Figures (F) or Plates (P)

Life stage shown in  Figures (F) or Plates (P)

Structure location

Definition/function

abdomen(s)

F20, 22, P4, 5, 8-10, 14-17

drone (P14, 15), worker (P4, 8, 9, 10), queen (P16, 17) generic (F20, 22, P5)

adult

3rd main body section

Third tagma of the body. It is located after the thorax.

abdominal muscle(s)

P10

worker

adult

abdomen, internal

Muscles responsible for general abdominal movement and movement of internal abdominal organs.

acid gland(s) of sting

P10, 11

worker (P10), generic (P11)

adult

abdomen, internal

A long, forked tubule with slightly expanded trips. The single, proximal tube widens for form the venom sac, in which the gland secretion is stored. Also known as the “venom gland”.

acinus(-ni)

not labelled

 

 

 

One of the small, sac-like dilations composing a compound gland. For example, they are present in the hypopharyngeal glands and look like a string of onions.

adult(s)

not labelled

 

 

 

The mature stage of honey bee.

alkaline gland(s) of sting

P10, 11

worker (P10), generic (P11)

adult

abdomen, internal

White, strap-shaped organ that empties its secretion into the sting chamber.

antenna(-ae)

F5, 28, P2, 18B, C

drone (F28), all (P2), generic (F5, P18B, C)

embryo (F5), larva (P18B, C), adult (F28, P2)

head, external

Important, paired sensory organs on bees. They aid in tactile, olfactory, and gustatory sensory perception.

antenna(-ae) cleaner

P6

generic

adult

foreleg, thorax, external

A notch with comb structure on the basitarsus of the foreleg of the honey bee. When the leg is bent, the fibula and notch form a structure through which the bee pulls its antennae to clean it.

antennal lobe(s)

F24, P9, 10, 13

worker (P9, 10, 13), generic (F24)

adult

head, internal

Areas in the deutocerebrum composed of bundles of nerve fibres that connect with the sense organs of the antennae.

antennal vesicle(s)

F20

generic

adult

head, internal

Small pulsating area under the base of the antennae. Small vessels run from the vesicles into the antennae to supply them with haemolymph.

anus(-ni)

P5, 16C, 19

generic (P5, 19), queen (P16C)

adult (5P, 16C), larva (P19)

abdomen, external

An orifice in the proctiger through which wastes are expelled.

aorta(-ae)

F20, P12

generic

adult

head, thorax, internal

Continuous with the heart, it is a blood vessel that runs through the thorax to the head, where its end opens below the brain, thus supplying haemolymph to the brain/head.

apodeme(s)

P12

worker

adult

abdomen, internal

Peg-like, ingrowth extensions of thickened plate edges of the exoskeleton.  They serve as points of attachment for muscles and may support internal organs.

arcus(-ci)

P6

generic

adult

legs, thorax, external

An arc on the ventral surface of the “foot” or pretarsus to which the dorsally-located manubrium is attached.

arolium(-ia)

P6

generic

adult

legs, thorax, external

A pad on the pretarsus that is normally folded and raised between the claws. Bees unfold the arolium for adhesion when walking on a smooth surface.

auricle(s)

P7

worker

adult

hind legs, thorax, external

A sloping shelf on the end of the basitarsus (i.e. in the pollen press). It has a textured surface and a fringe of hairs to facilitate pollen processing.

basalare(s) and basalare muscle(s)

F9

generic

adult

thorax, external (basalare) and internal (basalare muscle)

A plate on the thorax at the base of the wing that is hinged to a pleurite and attached to a muscle. Contraction of the muscle (basalar muscle) causes the basalare to swing inward on its hinge, thus pulling the leading edge of the wing down during flight.

basement membrane(s)

not shown

 

 

all, internal

Supportive layer for epidermal cells composed of basal lamina and collagen fibres. It separates the haemocoel from the exoskeleton.

basitarsus(-rsi)

P6, 7

worker (P7), generic (P6)

adult

legs, thorax, external

The first, and largest, tarsomere (or subsection of the tarsus).

bulb(s) of endophallus(-lli)

P14, 15

drone

adult

abdomen, internal

An ovoid body on the distal end of the endophallus, being crescent-shaped and having roughly triangular sclerotized plates in its walls and trough-like internal projections. Dorsal and lateral plates of bulb are seen in P15.

bulb(s) of sting

F12, P11

generic

adult

abdomen, internal

Inflated organ between the ramus and shaft of sting. It is continuous with the stylet and full of venom.

bursa(-ae)

F32, 33

queen

adult

abdomen, internal

A wide, membranous pouch at the anterior end of the sting chamber.

brain(s)

F20, 23, 24 P13

worker (P13), generic (F20, 23, 24)

larva (F23), adult (P13, F20, 24)

head, internal

The centre of sensory perception in the bee. It principally receives stimuli from the eye and antennae and transmits the nervous impulses to the motor centres (ganglia) of the ventral nerve cord.

cardo(-dines)

F3, 4A, P2D, 3

worker (P2D), generic (F3, 4A, P3)

adult

head, external

The basal hinge of the maxilla, located on the proximal end of the proboscis. The cardines are instrumental in extending the proboscis.

cervix(-ices)

not labelled but shown in P15

drone

adult

abdomen, internal

The part of the shaft of the endophallus in drone honey bees between the horns and bulb.

chitin(s)

not shown

 

 

all, external

Tough, protective polysaccharide that forms much of the insect exoskeleton.

cibarium(-ia)

F15, P13

worker (P13), generic (F15)

adult

head, internal

Food chamber in the bee mouth. Muscles attached to it cause it to act as a sucking pump, thus raising fluid through the proboscis.

clasper(s)

P15

drone

adult

abdomen, external

External part of the reproductive organs of drones. They are reduced to small sclerites attached to the sternite of A9.

claw(s)

P6

generic

adult

legs, thorax, external

Pair of strong, recurved structures present on the pretarsus (foot). They provide secure footing on rough surfaces. Also known as unguis.

clypeus(-pei)

P2C

worker

adult

head, external

A plate of the exoskeleton on the “face” of the bee.

compound eye(s)

P2C, 9, 13

worker

adult

head, external

The two, large eyes on the head of the bee. The external surface of both eyes is an elongated oval, strongly convex and consists of the lenses of thousands of ommatidia.

corbicula(-ae)

P7

worker

adult

hind leg, thorax, external

The “pollen basket” or pollen carrying apparatus on the hind leg of the worker bee.

corna(-nua)

See “horn”

 

 

 

Synonymous with “horn”.

corpus (-pora) allatum (-ta)

P13

worker

adult

head, internal

Paired endocrine glands behind the brain. They produce juvenile hormone.

corpus (-pora) cardiacum (-iaca)

not shown

 

 

head, internal

Two small knots of tissue just in front of the corpora allata, on either side of the aorta. They pour the hormones they produce into the haemolymph, stimulating larval prothoracic endocrine glands to produce ecdysone.

corpus (-pora) pedunculatum (-ta)

not shown

 

 

head, internal

Also called “mushroom bodies”. Buried in protocerebrum, under the ocelli, they contain small groups of nerve cells. They coordinate the actions of the insect according to information received from the sense organs.

coxa(-ae)

P5, 7

worker (P7), generic (P5)

adult

legs, thorax, external

Segment of the leg, closest to the thorax.

crop(s)

P8B, 9

worker

adult

abdomen, internal

Also known as the “honey stomach”, the crop is a transparent bag in which foraging bees store nectar after it has been collected from flowers and while it is being transported to the hive. The crop is the last section of the foregut.

crystalline cone(s)

F26

generic

adult

head, internal

A transparent area behind the ommatidium lens that is surrounded by pigment cells.

cuticle(s)

not shown

 

 

all, external

The main layer of the exoskeleton. It is secreted by epidermal cells which lie beneath it. It has two layers: exocuticle and endocuticle. It is covered by the epicuticle.

deutocerebrum(s)

not shown

 

 

head, internal

Part of the brain. It is composed of bundles of nerve fibres connected with the sense organs of the antennae.

dorsal diaphragm(s)

F20, P8C

worker (P8C), generic (F20)

adult

abdomen, internal

A thin, transparent membrane spread over the roof of the abdomen and attached to the apodemes of the tergites and sternites. Responsible (with the ventral diaphragm) for setting up circulation inside the abdomen and for drawing blood from the thorax into the abdomen.

duct(s) of hypopharyngeal gland(s)

F15

generic

adult

head, internal

Ducts leading from the hypopharyngeal gland to the back of the hypopharynx. The duct carries the secretions of the hypopharyngeal gland to the mouth of the bee.

duct(s) of salivary gland(s)

F15

generic

adult

head, internal

Ducts leading from the salivary glands of the thorax to the salivarium in the bee mouth, at the base of the glossa.

duct(s) of spermatheca(-ae)

F32, 33

queen

adult

abdomen, internal

Duct connecting the spermatheca to the vagina. At mating, the drones deposit spermatozoa into the oviducts. The spermatozoa then migrate up the spermathecal duct into the spermatheca.

duct(s) of venom gland(s)

F12

generic

adult

abdomen, internal

A tube that runs from the venom gland to the bulb of the sting.

egg(s)

P20

generic

egg

 

Also known as “ovum”, the egg contains the embryo, the youngest juvenile form of the honey bee. They are about 1.5 mm long and 1/3 mm in diameter at the apex.

egg cell(s)

F31

queen

adult

abdomen, internal

The cells present in the ovarioles that later become the mature eggs.

ejaculatory duct(s)

P14

drone

adult

abdomen, internal

The duct in the endophallus through which spermatozoa pass at the moment of copulation.

embryo(s)

P20

generic

egg

egg, internal

The youngest juvenile form of the honey bee. It is present in the egg.

endocuticle(s)

not shown

 

 

all, external

The innermost layer of cuticle. It is a soft layer, composed mostly of chitin.

endophallus(-lli)

P15

drone

adult

abdomen, internal

The part of the drone reproductive organ that is inserted into the queen at copulation. It is stored, inverted, in the abdomen.

epicuticle(s)

not shown

 

 

all, external

The thin, waxy/waterproof layer covering the exoskeleton. It has the following layers (from outside to inside): cement, wax, polyphenol, and cuticulin. It reduces water loss and blocks invasion of foreign matter.

epidermis(es)

not shown

 

 

all, internal

Single layer of epithelial cells that secrete the rest of the layers of the exoskeleton. They are located below the endocuticle and are attached to the basement membrane.

epipharynx(-nges)

F4A, 15, P13

worker (P13), generic (F4A, 15)

adult

head, internal

A soft pad on the inner surface of the labrum that is shaped to fit closely (i.e. form an airtight seal) against the proboscis when the proboscis is in use.

exocuticle(s)

not shown

 

 

all, external

The outermost layer of cuticle. It is hard and composed mainly of sclerotin and chitin. It hardens in a process called sclerotization, thus forming the sclerites.

exoskeleton(s)

not shown

 

 

all, external

The protective outer shell of the bee. From outside to inside, it is composed of the following layers: epicuticle, cuticle (exocuticle and endocuticle,), epidermis, and basement membrane. It protects the internal organs and serves as locations for muscle attachment.

fat body(ies)

P10

worker

adult

abdomen, internal

A layer of conspicuous, creamy cells concentrated principally on the floor and roof of the abdomen. The fat body contains fat cells, which are mainly fat but also may contain protein and glycogen.

femur(-mora)

P6, 7

worker (P7), generic (P6)

adult

legs, thorax, external

From the thorax, the 3rd segment of each bee leg.

fibula(-ae)

P6

generic

adult

foreleg, thorax, external

A jointed spur, present on the foreleg tibia, that is part of the antenna cleaner complex.

flabellum(-lla)

P3

generic

adult

head, external

The small, rounded scoop at the end of the glossa. Also known as the labellum.

flagellum(-lla)

F28A

drone

adult

head, external

The largest part of the bee antenna. It contains 11 segments in queens and workers and 12 segments in drones.

fold(s), forewing(s)

P6

generic

adult

wing, external

Folds on the trailing edge of the forewing to which the hamuli on the leading edge of the hind wings connect.

follicle cell(s)

F31

queen

adult

abdomen, internal

Cells that cluster around the egg cells in the ovariole to form a sheath around each egg cell.  They disappear once the egg is mature, thus leaving the network of markings on the exterior of the egg.

food canal(s)

F4B

generic

adult

head, internal

A tube formed when the galeae and labial palps are brought close together. It surrounds the glossa and is used to suck nectar, honey, water or other liquids.

foramen(-mina)

P2D

worker

adult

head, external

A hole below the occiput on the posterior portion of the head through which the organs inside the head are connected to the thorax.

foregut(s)

not labelled

 

 

head, thorax, abdomen, internal

The mouth cavity, oesophagus, and crop of the honey bee. It is lined with cuticle. Also called stomodaeum in embryonic and larval bees.

foreleg(s)

F5, P6

generic

embryo (F5), adult (P6)

thorax, external

The front pair of the three pairs of legs of the honey bee. These are located on the prothorax and contain the antenna cleaner. Also called proleg.

forewing(s)

not labelled but seen in P6

 

 

thorax, external

The larger of the paired wings on both sides of the body. The forewing is located on the mesothorax.

fossa(-ae)

P2D, 3

worker (P2D), generic (P3)

adult

head, external

A U-shaped hollow on the posterior portion of the head.

frons(-ntes)

P2C

worker

adult

head, external

An area on the anterior portion of the head (face). It is the segment best seen below the ocelli but above and beside the antennae. Also called the “brow”.

furca(-ae)

P9, 10, 12

worker (P9, 10), generic (P12)

adult

thorax, internal

Hardened processes of the thoracic sternites that reach inside the thorax. They may protect internal organs or have other functions.

furcula(-ae) of the sting(s)

P11

generic

adult

abdomen, internal

Small, recurved process rising from the base of the bulb as two branches which unite after curving over it dorsally. It provides sites to which muscles attach in the sting.

galea(-ae)

F4B, P2D, E,  3

worker (P2D, E), generic (F4B, P3)

adult

head, external

Paired parts of the proboscis that, with the labial palps, form the food canal.

ganglion(-ia)

F23, P10, 11, 12

worker (P10, 11), generic (F23, P12)

larva (F23), adult (P10-12)

thorax, abdomen, internal

Nerve centres located in the thorax and abdomen. They are responsible, primarily, for movement and organ control.

gena(-ae)

P2C, 13

worker

adult

head, external

The “cheek” region or lateral plates on the bee head.

glossa(-ae)

 

F4B, 15, P2D, E, 3

worker (P2D, E), generic (F4B, 15, P3)

adult

head, external

The bee “tongue”, the distal tip of which contains the flabellum. It is a hollow tube of thin, tough membrane and is flattened and curled at its sides. It is covered with small hairs.

glossal rod(s)

F4B

generic

adult

head, internal

A slender rod that stiffens the glossa and which can be drawn backwards by muscles in the prementum.

hamulus(-li)

P6

generic

adult

wing, external

Hooks on the leading edge of the hind wing that latch onto a fold on the trailing edge of the forewing, thus joining the fore- and hind wings.

head(s)

P2

drone (P2B), queen (P2A), worker (PC-F)

adult

1st main body section

First tagma of the bee body. It is located before the thorax.

heart(s)

F20, P8C

worker (P8C), generic (F20)

adult

abdomen, internal

Elongated organ lying just under the roof of the abdomen and attached to the dorsal diaphragm. It has muscular walls and small holes (ostia) which allow haemolymph into the heart. The heart pumps the haemolymph forward through the abdomen and into the thoracic aorta.

haemocoel(s)

not shown

 

 

all, internal

The internal body cavity of the bee.

haemolymph

not shown

 

 

all, internal

Bee blood.

hind gut(s)

not labelled

 

 

abdomen, internal

The Malpighian tubules, small intestines, rectum and anus of the bee. Also called proctodeum in embryonic and larval bees.

hind leg(s)

F5, P7

worker (P7), generic (F5)

embryo (F5), adult (P7)

thorax, external

The last pair of the three pairs of legs of the honey bee. These are located on the metathorax and contain the pollen press, pollen brush, and corbicula (pollen basket).

hind wing(s)

not labelled but seen in P6

 

 

thorax, external

The smaller of the paired wings on both sides of the body. The hind wing is located on the metathorax.

horn(s) of endophallus, also corna(-nua) or pneumophysis(-ses)

P15

drone

adult

abdomen, internal

Conspicuous projections on either side of the drone vestibule.

 

hypopharynx(-nges)

F15

generic

adult

head, internal

A plate on the floor of the cibarium. It is hardened and the front lobe bends downward.

hypopharyngeal gland(s)

P9, 13

worker

adult

head, internal

Paired glands in the head with ducts opening at the base of the hypopharynx. They produce components of brood food.

ileum(-lei)

not labelled but seen in F17, P8B, 9

worker (P8B, 9), generic (F17)

adult

abdomen, internal

Part of the hindgut. Also called the “small intestine”. It is a narrow tube, surrounded by circumferential muscle fibres. It is pleated into 6 longitudinal folds.

imago(-gines)

not labelled

 

 

 

The adult or sexually developed insect.

instar(s)

P20

generic

larva and pupa

 

The developmental stage of the bee between each moult, until sexual maturity (adulthood) is reached.

Johnston organ(s)

not shown

 

 

head, internal

A sense organ located in the antennae pedicel. The cells are arranged around the nerve trunk and are believed to be speed-of-flight indicators and also sensitive to gravity and electromagnetic fields.

labellum(-lla)

not labelled as labellum but shown in P3

 

 

 

The small, rounded scoop at the end of the glossa. Also known as the flabellum.

labial palp(s)

F4B, P2D, E, 3

worker (P2D, E), generic (F4B, P3)

adult

head, external

Paired parts of the proboscis that, with the galea, form the food canal.

labium(-ia)

F5, P18B, C

generic

embryo (F5), larva (P18B, C)

head, external

The “lower lip” of the bee from which the inner members of the proboscis are all derived. These include the postmentum, prementum, labial palps, glossa, two paraglossae and the labellum.

labrum(-ra)

F5, P2C, E, 13, 18B, C

worker (P2C, E, 13), generic (F5, P18B, C)

embryo (F5), larva (P18B, C), adult (P2C, E, 13)

head, external

A sclerotized flap hinged to the clypeus on the anterior side of the head.

lacinia(-ae)

F4A, P3

generic

adult

head, external

Part of the maxillae. They press against the epipharynx when the proboscis is in use. This forms an airtight joint to facilitate sucking though the proboscis.

lancet(s)

F12, P11, 18D

generic

adult (F12, P11), prepupa (18D)

abdomen, external

Paired, hardened shafts that are part of the sting apparatus. They are pointed and barbed on the distal end. When the sting is used, muscles cause the lancets to dig into the victim at the sting site.

lancet track(s)

P5, 11

generic

adult

abdomen, internal

A semicircular path on which the ramus of the lancet runs in the process of deploying the sting.

larva(-ae)

P20

generic

larva

 

The immature stage of the honey bee that emerges from the egg. Larvae spend all their time feeding and growing. This stage immediately precedes the prepupal stage of bee development.

lateral pouch(es) of bursa(-ae)

F32

queen

adult

abdomen, internal

Bulbous sacs located on both sides of the bursa (1 sac per side).

lens(es)

F26

generic

adult

head, external

The outer layer of the eye, both on the ocelli and the ommatidium.

ligula(-ae)

not shown

 

 

 

The region where the base of the glossa and the small pair of paraglossal lobes join the prementum.

lip(s), proventriculus(-li)

F16A-D

generic

adult

abdomen, internal

4 triangular flaps on the apex of the proventriculus can be closed/opened. They are fringed with hairs. The hairs filter pollen and other particles from nectar.

longitudinal commissure(s)

P10

worker

adult

abdomen, internal

Twin nerve trunks that connect ganglia.

longitudinal muscle(s), thorax(-aces)

P8A, 12

worker (P8A), generic (P12)

adult

thorax, internal

Two bundles of muscles that run side by side from the mesothorax tergite and 1st phragma to the 2nd phragma. Contraction of this muscle squeezes the anterior and posterior ends of the thorax together, raising the roof of the thorax and forcing the wings down.

lorum(-ra)

P3

generic

adult

head, external

V-shaped submentum that join the stipites together. It is located between the cardines.

lumen(-mina) of the proventriculus(-li)

F16B

generic

adult

abdomen, internal

The inside space of the proventriculus.

Malpighian tubule(s)

F17; P8A, B, 9, 19

worker (P8A, B, 9), generic (F17; P19)

adult (F17; P8A, B, 9), larva (P19)

abdomen, internal

Function as the “kidneys” in the bee. They filter nitrogenous wastes from the haemolymph and pass it through the small intestines to the rectum.

mandible(s)

F5, P2C, E, 3, 13, 18B, C

worker (P2C, E, P13), all (P3), generic (F5, P18B, C)

embryo (F5), larva (P18B, C), adult (P2C, E, 3, 13)

head, external

The “jaws” which are hinged to the genae. They are strong, spoon-shaped organs in the worker, concave and ridged on the inner side. The queen’s mandibles are toothed, and, along with the drone’s, are unspecialized. Mandibles have many functions in the worker bee.

mandible groove(s)

P3

generic

adult

head, external

A straight depression on the mandible down which secretions from the mandibular gland flow.

mandible orifice(s) of gland

P3

generic

adult

head, external

An opening on the mandible that leads to the mandibular gland.

mandibular gland(s)

P13

worker

adult

head, internal

A pair of glands above the mandibles. They are single, somewhat lobate sacs lying under the genae. They are developed in the worker, rudimentary in the drone, and very large in the queen. The secretion of the mandibular glands in queens is known as “queen substance”, which has multiple, important functions in the colony.

manubrium(-ria)

P6

generic

adult

legs, thorax, external

A dorsal plate on the pretarsus. It has 5 or 6 long bristles and is attached to the arcus of the arolium.

maxilla(-ae)

F5, P2D, E, 18B, C

worker (P2D, E), generic (F5, P18 B, C)

embryo (F5), larva (P18B, C), adult (P2D, E)

head, external

Part of the proboscis composed of the stipites, galeae, laciniae and the maxillary palps.

maxillary palp(s)

P3

generic

adult

head, external

Small appendages that are part of the maxilla of the bee. They are vestiges, with no clear function.

median oviduct(s)

F32, 33, P16C

queen

adult

abdomen, internal

The duct formed where the two lateral oviducts join. Eggs pass from the ovarioles into the lateral oviducts, and then into the median oviduct. The median oviduct opens into the vagina.

mesenteron(s)

labelled as ventriculus in P19

generic

larva

abdomen, internal

The midgut of the immature bee. It becomes the ventriculus in the adult bee.

mesothorax(-aces), T2

P4

generic

adult

thorax, external

The second thoracic segment. The middle legs and forewing are attached to this segment.

metathorax(-aces), T3

P4

generic

adult

thorax, external

The third thoracic segment. The hind legs and hind wing are attached to this segment.

micropyle(s)

not shown

 

 

egg, external

A location at the apex of the egg that is not covered by follicle cells but rather by a thin membrane. It is this area through which spermatozoa penetrate when the egg is fertilized.

middle leg(s)

F5

generic

embryo

thorax, external

The middle pair of legs on the thorax. It has a characteristic spine on the distal end of the tibia. Also called mesoleg.

midgut(s)

labelled as ventriculus and/or mesenteron P9

 

 

abdomen, internal

Also called ventriculus or mesenteron, the latter in embryonic and larval bees.

mucus gland(s)

P14, 15

drone

adult

abdomen, internal

Club-shaped sacs in the drone, associated with the endophallus. It produces mucus and increases in size as the drone matures. The mucus may be deposited in the mated queen to prevent the escape of spermatozoa.

Nasanov gland(s)

not labelled

 

 

 

Synonymous with scent gland.

nerve(s)

P10

worker

adult

head, thorax, abdomen, legs, antennae, internal

Cells responsible for sensory transmission and processing to/in the ganglia and brain and for muscle movement.

nurse cell(s)

F31

queen

adult

abdomen, internal

Clusters of cells that follow each egg cell in the ovarioles. The nurse cells provide nutrients to the growing eggs and are absorbed as the egg approaches full size.

oblong plate(s)

F12, P5, 10, 18D

generic

adult (F12, P5, 10), prepupa (P18D)

abdomen, external

One of three pairs of plates in the sting which are moved by muscles and cause the sting to deploy.

occiput(s)

P2D

worker

adult

head, external

The upper posterior region of the head.

ocellus(-lli)

F24, P2C, 9, 13

worker (P2C, 9, 13), generic (F24)

adult

head, external

The three simple eyes on the dorsal surface of the head, between the two compound eyes. They consist of a lens above a layer of simple, elongated retinal cells. Used to measure light intensity.

oenocyte(s)

not shown

 

 

 

Type of cell in the fat body. Function possibly linked to wax production.

oesophagus(-gi)

P9, 12, 13

worker (P9, 13), generic (P12)

adult

head, thorax, internal

The tube connecting the mouth to the crop. It is part of the bee foregut.

ommatidium(-ia)

F26, P13

worker (P13), generic (F26)

adult

head, internal

Elongated bodies of the compound eyes, tapering towards their inner ends. It consists of a lens, crystalline cone (surrounded by pigment cells), a bundle of eight retinula cells (also surrounded by pigment cells).

optic lobe(s)

F24, P9, 13, 18B

worker (P9, 13), generic (F24, P18B)

adult (F24, P9, 13), larva (P18B)

head, internal

Bundles of crossing nerve fibres (chiasmata) connected with the thousands of units in the compound eyes. The lobes are part of the protocerebrum, which is one of the brain’s three component parts.

ostium(-ia)

P8C

worker

adult

abdomen, internal

One-way valves in the heart that allow haemolymph to enter the heart when it is dilated, but confined it and force it forward when the heart contracts.

ovariole(s)

F31

queen

adult

abdomen, internal

A long tubule located in the ovary. It contains the egg cells, nurse cells, and follicle cells. Groups of ovarioles (150 or more) coalesce to form the ovary.

ovary(-ies)

P10, 16A-C

worker (P10), queen (P16A-C)

adult

abdomen, internal

Paired organs in the queen, each consisting of a bundle of about 150 ovarioles. They are greatly reduced in the worker.

oviduct(s), lateral

F32, 33, P16B, C

queen

adult

abdomen, internal

A broad tube that is attached to both ovaries. The two lateral oviducts connect directly to ovarioles on their posterior side and to one another to form the median oviduct on their anterior side.

ovum(-va)

not labelled

 

 

 

Another term for “egg”.

paraglossa(-ae)

P3

generic

adult

head, external

Part of the proboscis, they are a pair of small appendages of the ligula. 

pecten(-tines)

not labelled

 

 

 

Another term for “rastellum”.

pedicel(s)

F28A

drone

adult

head, external

The second segment of the bee antenna. 

peduncle(s)

not labelled

 

 

 

Another term for “petiole”.

petiole(s)

not labelled but shown in P4, 5

 

 

thorax, abdomen external

The restricted (narrowed) area linking the thorax to the abdomen. Often called the “waist” or “peduncle”.

phallotreme(s)

not shown

 

 

abdomen, internal

Genital opening of endophallus.

pharynx(-nges)

F3, 15

generic

adult

head, internal

The gullet-cavity behind the cibarium.

phragma(ae)

P12

generic

adult

thorax, internal

Fence-like ridges that are ingrowths of the exoskeleton. They serve as strong places of attachment for muscles, and struts to stiffen the shell in places where added strength is needed.

pigment cell(s)

F26

generic

adult

head, internal

Cells in the ommatidium that are located around the crystalline cone and the retinula cells. They appear to exclude the light which enters neighbouring ommatidia, thus ensuring stimulation is applied only by the light entering a single ommatidium.

pit(s), anterior head

P2C

worker

adult

head, external

Two depressions at the edges of the clypeus that mark the position of the upper ends of the tentoria.

pit(s), posterior head

P2D

worker

adult

head, external

Two depressions adjoining the foramen that indicate the position of the ends of the tentoria.

planta(-ae)

P6

generic

adult

legs, thorax, external

A sclerite of the pretarsus between the unguitractor and arolium.

pleurite(s)

P4, 5

worker (P4), generic (P5)

adult

thorax, external

In honey bees, this mainly refers to lateral plates (sclerites) of the thoracic exoskeleton. The legs on the pro-, meso-, and metathorax are articulated to the pleurites located on the respective thoracic segments. Pleurites are absent in abdomen.

pneumophysis(-ses)

labelled has horn in P15

 

 

 

Synonymous with “horn”.

pollen brush(es)

P7

worker

adult

hind legs thorax, external

On the hind leg, it is the inner side of the flat, broad basitarsi. It is covered with rows of closely set, stiff hairs. It is used for brushing pollen from the abdomen after visits to flowers.

pollen press(es)

P7

worker

adult

hind leg, thorax, external

The tibio-tarsal joint on the hind leg of the worker bee, modified for use as a pollen manipulator.

postcerebral gland(s)

P9, 13

worker

adult

head, internal

Glands that lie behind the brain. Produces enzymes that are a component of bee saliva.

postmentum(-ta)

P3

generic

adult

head, external

Part of the proboscis. It is articulated to the middle of the lorum and between the cardines.

pouch(es), proventriculus(-li)

F16B-D

generic

adult

abdomen, internal

Pockets behind the proventricular lips in which pollen is collected after being filtered from nectar. Pollen masses pass from here into the ventriculus when full.

prementum(-ta)

F15, P2D, E, 3

worker (P2D, E), generic (F15, P3)

adult

head, external

A sclerite of the proboscis to which is joined the labial palps, glossa, and two paraglossae.

prepupa(ae)

P20

generic

prepupa

 

The immature stage of bee development between the larval and pupal stages. The prepupal stage occurs in capped cells.

pretarsus(-si)

P6

generic

adult

legs, thorax, external

The bee “foot”.

proboscis(es)

P2C, 3

worker (P2), generic (P3)

adult

head, external

An anatomical cluster composed of the labium and maxillae. It has many component parts. It use used by the bee to suck in liquids (nectar, water, honey, etc.), for exchanging food with other bees, and for removing water from nectar.

proctiger(-ra)

P5, 11

generic

adult

abdomen, external

The remains of the 10th abdominal segment. It carries the anus and is fixed to the sting.

proctodeum(-ea)

P19

generic

larva

abdomen, internal

The hindgut of the embryo and larva. It does not connect with the midgut (mesenteron) until the full grown larva has taken its last meal and is ready to pupate. It becomes the Malpighian tubules, small intestine, rectum, and anus in the adult bee.

propodeum(-ea), A1

P4

worker

adult

thorax, external

The first abdominal segment located immediately behind the metathorax. Its tergite (A1, tg) nearly encircles the rear part of the thorax and narrows to fit around the petiole. Its sternite (A1, st) is a small strap underneath the petiole. The precursor for this is shown for larvae in P18A and for prepupae in P18 E (in both, labelled A1).

prothorax(-aces), T1

P4

worker

adult

thorax, external

The first thoracic segment. The two forelegs are attached to the pleurites of this segment. Its tergite encircles the bee neck like a collar. A lobe on either side projects backwards to cover the first spiracle.

protocerebrum(-ra)

F24

generic

adult

head, internal

Part of the brain. It is primarily composed of the optic lobes.

proventriculus(-li)

F16, P9

worker (P9), generic (F16)

adult

abdomen, internal

Valve between the crop and ventriculus that prevents the collected nectar from running into the stomach. It also comprises a filtering apparatus for extracting pollen.

pupa(-ae)

P20

generic

pupa

 

The immature stage of bee development that occurs after the prepupal stage and before the adult stage. This stage occurs in capped cells and is when the grub-like body of the prepupa begins to develop into that of an adult.

pyloric valve(s)

F17

generic

adult

abdomen, internal

Valve that regulates the passage of material from the ventriculus into the intestine.

quadrate plate(s)

F12, P11

generic

adult

abdomen, external

One of three pairs of plates in the sting which are moved by muscles and cause the sting to deploy.

ramus(-mi)

F12

generic

adult

worker

Proximal end of the lancet. It is flexible and runs on a semicircular track. Pressure by the triangular plate pushes the ramus round its track, thus forcing the lancet in the same direction.

rastellum(-lla)

P7

worker

adult

hind legs, thorax, external

A row of wide and pointed spines on the distal end of the tibia. It is used to rake pollen out of pollen brushes and prevent the pollen mass from escaping the pollen press. Also known as “pecten”.

rectal pad(s)

P8A, 9

worker

adult

abdomen, internal

Six partly chitinized pads arranged around the rectum. They reabsorb ions and water (used to collect wastes by the Malpighian tubules) from the rectum.

rectum(-ta)

P5, 8A, B, 9, 16A

generic (P5) worker (P8A, B, 9), queen (P16A)

adult

abdomen, internal

Part of the hind gut into which the contents of the small intestines empty and out of which wastes pass through the anus.  It can expand greatly to hold wastes when bees are unable to leave the colony to defecate.

retaining hair(s) or auricle(s)

P7

worker

adult

hind legs, thorax, external

Hairs on the fringe of the auricle that keep pollen from falling out of the pollen press.

retina(-ae) of ocellus(-lli)

P9, 13

worker

adult

head, internal

Part of the ocellus that detects relative intensity of flight which falls on the lens.

retinula(-ae) cell(s)

F26

generic

adult

head, internal

A bundle of 8 cells in the ommatidium. They are surrounded by pigment cells. The edges of the retinula cells, which meet in the axis of the ommatidium, combine to form a long, narrow rhabdom.

rhabdom(s)

F26

generic

adult

head, internal

A transparent rod that is formed by the hollow left when the edges of 8 retinula cells meet in the axis of the ommatidium. It is striated and likely diffuses light laterally into the retinula cells.

salivarium(-ia)

F15

generic

adult

head, internal

A pouch under the hypopharynx into which opens the common duct of the postcerebral and thoracic salivary glands.

salivary gland(s), thorax

P9

worker (P9)

adult

thorax, internal

Glands in the thorax which are partially responsible for producing enzymes in the saliva.

scape(s)

F28A

drone

adult

head, external

The first antennal segment.

scent canal(s)

P12

worker

adult

abdomen, external

Structure on the 7th abdominal tergite onto which the pheromone of the scent gland is released.

scent gland(s)

P4

worker

adult

abdomen, internal

Lies under the front part of the 7th abdominal tergite. Secretes a pheromone into the scent canal, which is dissipated by the bees when they fan their wings. Also called Nasanov gland.

sclerite(s)

not labelled

 

 

all, external

Hardened plates of cuticle.

sclerotin(s)

not labelled

 

 

all, external

A tanned protein present in the exocuticle.

scopa(-ae)

not labelled

 

 

abdomen, external

Pollen-carrying apparatus on bee body. Also known as “corbicula” or “pollen basket” for honey bees.

scutal fissure(s)

P5

generic

adult

thorax, external

A fissure (line that divides a sclerite) between the scutum and scutellum.

scutellum(-lla), T3, tg

P4, 5

worker (P4), generic (P5)

adult

thorax, external

The tergite of the 3rd thoracic segment. It is visible as a prominent “roll” behind the scutum.

scutum(-ta), T2, tg

P4, 5

worker (P4), generic (P5)

adult

thorax, external

The tergite of the 2nd thoracic segment. It is strongly domed and covers most of the thorax.

semen

P15

drone

adult

abdomen, internal

A mixture of spermatozoa and glandular secretions produced by the drone reproductive organs.

seminal vesicle(s)

P14, 15

drone

adult

abdomen, internal

Two curved, sausage-shaped organs which increase in length and girth as they receive spermatozoa from the testes. Their walls are muscular and lined with glandular tissue. When the drone is sexually mature the vesicles are packed with spermatozoa and glandular secretions.

sense hair(s)

F28C, F29B

drone (F28C), generic (F29B)

adult

head, external

Sensilla with fine bristles projecting from the cuticle on a smooth surface or from in a pit. They are tactile organs, with many located on the antenna.

sense peg(s)

not shown

 

 

 

Similar to sense hairs, they are sensilla with short, stout pegs rather than a bristle, projecting from the cuticle on a smooth surface or from in a pit. They are tactile organs (mechanoreceptors).

sense plate(s)

F28C, F29A

drone (F28C), generic (F29A)

adult

head, antennae, external

Sensilla that consist of a hollow in the cuticle, capped by a thin plate, level with the surrounding surface. They are chemoreceptors.

sensillum(-lla)

F29

generic

adult

head, external

A sense cell or cells with a nerve fibre connected with the central nervous system and its distal end in close connection to the cuticle. There are several types and they are involved in various types of sensory perception (principally mechano- and chemoreceptors).

seta(-ae)

not labelled

 

 

all, external

A sensillum that is multicellular, consisting of trichogen (hair shaft), tormogen (the “socket” holding the shaft), and sense cells.

silk gland(s)

F5, P19

generic

embryo (F5), larva (P19)

abdomen, internal

Long, kinked glands that extend through most of the larva’s body. They unite in a common duct which opens in the spinneret on the labium. They become the thoracic salivary glands in the adult bee. The larva uses the glands to produce a silk cocoon while entering the prepupal phase.

sinus(es), dorsal and ventral

not labelled

 

 

abdomen, internal

The space between the dorsal/ventral diaphragms and the body wall. It is important for haemolymph circulation in the bee’s body.

small intestine(s)

F17; P8A, 16A

worker (P8), queen (P16A), generic (F17)

adult

abdomen, internal

Derived from the proctodeum, it is a narrow tube surrounded by circumferential muscle fibres. The tube is pleated into six longitudinal folds and is coiled. It follows the ventriculus and Malpighian tubules and precedes the rectum in the alimentary tract. Also called ileum.

spermatheca(-ae)

F33, P16B, C

queen

adult

abdomen, internal

A spherical sac which holds the spermatozoa in a mated queen. The spermatozoa can be stored and kept alive here for the life of the queen.

spermathecal gland(s)

F33

queen

adult

abdomen, internal

A gland with two branches that loop over the dorsal surface of the spermatheca. The common duct of these two branches joins the spermathecal duct and the gland is believed to produce a nutrient secretion for the spermatozoa.

spermathecal valve and pump

F33

queen

adult

abdomen, internal

A fixture on the duct of the spermatheca that has muscles which draw spermatozoa out of the spermatheca and forces it into the vagina where it is available to fertilize an egg.

spermatozoon(-zoa)

F30

drone

adult

abdomen, internal

The male gametes. They are also called sperm. They are slender threads, about ¼ mm long. They have head and tail regions, using their tails to swim.

spiracle(s), sp

F5, P5

generic

embryo (F5), adult (P5)

thorax/abdomen, external

The bee’s breathing holes. Spiracles are arranged on the lateral sides of the various body segments. They open to the tracheal system and facilitate air exchange into and out of the body.

spiracle plate(s) of sting, A8, tg

P5

generic

adult

abdomen, external

The remains of the 8th abdominal tergite. It composes part of the sting.

sternite(s), st

P4, 5

worker (P4), generic (P5)

adult

thorax/abdomen, external

Ventral plates of the exoskeleton. There is one for each visible body segment of the thorax and abdomen. They are labelled 1-3 on the thorax and 1-7 on abdomen.

sting apparatus(es)

P10, 11, 16B, C

worker (P10), queen (P16B, C), generic (P11)

adult

abdomen, internal

A number of abdominal parts that collectively compose the honey bee sting. These include modified sclerites, muscles, glands, etc. The honey bee sting is used in defence.

sting chamber(s)

P5, 16C

generic (P5), queen (P16C)

adult

abdomen, external

The area covered by the 7th abdominal segment that contains the sting apparatus.

sting shaft(s)

P4, 5, 10

worker (P4, 10), generic (P5)

adult

abdomen, external

The part of the sting that is deployed into the stung victim. It is composed of three parts, the stylet and two lancets.

sting sheath(s)

P5, 11, 18D

generic (P5, 11, 18D)

adult (P5, 10), prepupa (P18D)

abdomen, external

Two soft extensions of the oblong plates about the same length of the sting shaft. It may produce a glandular secretion that is involved in the alarm response.

stipes(-pites)

P3

generic

adult

head, external

Part of the maxillae, which, in turn, is part of the proboscis. The two stipites are joined together by the transverse lorum.

stomodaeum(-ea)

F5, P19

generic

embryo (F5), larva (P19)

head, thorax, abdomen, internal

The foregut of the immature honey bee embryo and larva. It becomes the mouth cavity, oesophagus, and crop in the adult bee.

stylet(s)

F12, P18D

generic

prepupa

abdomen, external

A slender, rigid and sharply pointed rod that, with the two lancets, compose the sting shaft. The stylet is barbed at its point. The two lancets and stylet form a canal, down which the venom flows when the sting is deployed.

subalare(s) and subalare muscle (s)

F9

generic

adult

abdomen, external (subalare) and internal (subalare muscle)

A plate on the thorax that is hinged to the notched pleurite of the mesothorax. Inside the body, this plate is attached to the subalare muscle, the other end of which is anchored to the coxa of the second leg. Contraction of the subalare muscle pulls down the subalare and with it, the trailing edge of the wing.

suboesophageal ganglion(-ia)

F23, 24, P13

worker (P13), generic (F23, 24)

larva (F23), adult (F24, P13)

head, internal

The ganglion in the head that sends nerves to the mandibles and proboscis.

taenidium(-ia)

not shown

 

 

all, internal

Spiral thickenings of the cuticle in the walls of trachea. They keep the trachea open or dilated.

tagma(-mata)

 

 

 

head, thorax, abdomen

The three major body regions of the bee: the head, thorax and abdomen.

tarsomere(s)

P6

generic

adult

legs, thorax, external

The five subdivisions of the tarsus, of which the first and largest is the basitarsus. 

tarsus(-si)

P7

worker

adult

legs, thorax, external

A part of the bee leg that contains 5 subdivisions. It follows the tibia.

tegula(-ae)

P4, 5

worker (P4), generic (P5)

adult

thorax, external

A large scale on the mesothorax that overlaps and protects the root of the forewing

tentorium(-ia)

F3, 4A, P3, 13

generic (F3, 4A, P3), worker (P13)

adult

head, internal

Struts which strengthen the head framework.

tergite(s), tg

P4, P5, 8C

worker (P4, 8C), generic (P5)

adult

thorax/abdomen, external

Dorsal plates of the exoskeleton. There is one for each visible body segment of the thorax and abdomen. They are labelled 1-3 on the thorax and 1-7 on abdomen.

testis(-tes)

P14, 15, 19

drone (P14, 15), generic (P19)

adult (P14, 15), larva (P19)

abdomen, internal

Two bundles of tubules in which spermatozoa are produced and matured. They occupy much of the abdomen in newly-emerged drones but they shrink to a smaller size in sexually-mature drones. This occurs when the testes empty their contents into the seminal vesicles.

thoracic collar(s), T1, tg

P4, 5

worker (P4), generic (P5)

adult

thorax, external

A notable thoracic tergite located on the prothorax. It encircles the neck like a collar. A lobe (“lobe” in P4 and “lobe covering spiracle” in P5) on each side projects backwards to cover the spiracle through which tracheal mites (Acarapis woodi) enter.

thorax(-aces), T1-3

P4, 5

worker (P4), generic (P5)

adult

2nd main body section

The 2nd tagma of the body. It occurs after the head and before the abdomen. It is the centre of bee locomotion, being the tagma where the wings and legs are attached.

tibia(-ae)

P6, 7

worker (P7), generic (P6)

adult

legs, thorax, external

The 4th segment of the bee leg. It is proximal to the tarsus and distal to the femur.

tormogen(s)

not labelled

 

 

all, external

Cell that secretes the cuticle of the “socket” holding the trichogen of the seta.

 

 

 

 

 

 

trachea(-ae) or tracheal trunk (s)

F21, 22, P9

worker (P9), generic (F21, 22)

larva (F21), adult (F22, P9)

all, internal

Tubes in the body connected to spiracles through which respiratory air is delivered to organs. They are maintained in a dilated state by spiral thickenings of cuticle (taenidia) in their walls. They resemble the tracheal of terrestrial vertebrates. They expand into tracheal sacs.

tracheal sac(s)

not labelled but seen in F22

 

 

all, internal

Large air bags formed by longitudinal tracheal trunks. They serve as bellows to move air into and out of the body.

tracheoles(s)

not labelled

 

 

all, internal

The smallest of the branches that radiate from the tracheal trunks. They have no spiral thickening of the cuticle (taenidia). They are closely applied to the tissues. Here, oxygen brought to the tracheoles is dissolves in the haemolymph and carbon dioxide is removed.

triangular plate(s)

F12, P5, 11, 18D

generic

adult (F12, P5, 11), prepupa (P18D)

abdomen, external

One of three pairs of plates in the sting which are moved by muscles and cause the sting to deploy.

trichogen(s)

not labelled

 

 

all, external

The “hair shaft” of the seta.

tritocerebrum(-ra)

not labelled

 

 

head, internal

The smallest of the three component parts of the brain. It is obscured by the other parts and sends nerves to the labrum and frons (for the cibarium).

trochanter(s)

P7

worker

adult

thorax, external

The second leg segment. It is proximal to the femur and distal to the coxa.

unguis(-ues)

 

 

 

thorax, external

Synonymous with “claws”.

unguitractor plate(s)

P6

generic

adult

thorax, external

The sclerite that corresponds to the site of insertion of the tendon which flexes the pretarsus.

valvefold(s)

F33, P16C

queen

adult

abdomen, internal

A muscular fold in the floor of the vagina that projects upwards as a flap. It may be used to press eggs against the opening of the duct as sperm are released.

vagina(-ae)

F32

queen

adult

abdomen, internal

The sac-like pouch that follows the median oviduct. Eggs pass through the vagina and the queen can release spermatozoa from the spermatheca, through a duct, to fertilize the egg.

vaginal orifice(s)

F32

queen

adult

abdomen, internal

Opening leading to the vagina.

vas(-sa) deferens(-ntia)

P14, 15

drone

adult

abdomen, internal

Coiled tubes leading from the testes to the seminal vesicles. Spermatozoa pass through the vas deferentia.

venom canal(s)

F12

generic

adult

abdomen, internal

The canal formed by the pair of lancets and the stylet. This is the canal through which venom passes on its way to the victim.

venom gland(s)

labelled as “acid gland”

 

 

 

Synonymous with “acid gland”.

venom sac(s)

P10, 11

worker (P10), generic (P11)

adult

abdomen, internal

A single tube proximal to the venom glands (acid glands) that widens to form a large, club-shaped sac in which the secretion of the venom gland is stored. The sac tapers to a narrow duct which connects with and opens into the bulb of the sting.

ventral diaphragm(s)

F20

generic

adult

 

A thin, transparent membrane spread over the floor of the abdomen and attached to the apodemes of the sternites. Responsible (with the dorsal diaphragm) for setting up circulation inside the abdomen and for drawing blood from the thorax into the abdomen.

ventriculus(-li)

F17; P8A, B, 9, 16A, 19

worker (P8A, B, 9), queen (P16A), generic (F17; P19)

adult (F17; P8A, B, 9, 16A), larva (P19)

abdomen, internal

Also known as mid-gut or stomach. It is derived from the embryonic mesenteron. It is a long, wide tube, lying in a loop in the abdomen. It is constricted at intervals by contracted circumferential muscles. It is lined with epithelium cells which aid in digestion and nutrient uptake.

vertex(-tices)

P2C

worker

adult

head, external

The crown or top of the head.

vertical muscle(s), thorax(-aces)

P8A, 12

worker (P8A), generic (P12)

adult

thorax, internal

Two bundles of muscles that run side by side from the domed scutum of the mesothorax to the sternite of the same. When they contract, the roof of the thorax is pulled down, thus raising the wings.

vestibule(s)

not labelled but shown in P15

drone

adult

abdomen, internal

The part of the shaft of the endophallus in drone honey bees between the horns and the genital opening at A9.

wax gland(s), w

P4

worker

adult

abdomen, internal

Glands located on inner sides of abdominal sternites 4-7 that secrete wax.

wax mirror(s)

P12

worker

adult

abdomen, external

Areas on abdominal sternites 4-7 onto which wax is secreted by the wax gland.