3.2.3.2. Oesophagus and glands (Plate 9)

1. Remove the flight muscles: simply grip bunches of them with the forceps and pull them out (this is virtually impossible in a freshly-killed bee).

2. Observe:

   2.1. the attachment of the longitudinal muscles to the 2nd phragma, which is an extension inwards of the tergite of the second segment;

   2.2. the oesophagus below the longitudinal muscles, it passes from abdomen to head;

   2.3. the salivary glands of the thorax (derived from the silk glands of the larva); 2.4. the aorta is a delicate tube which is destroyed by the removal of the indirect flight muscles; it can be found by careful lateral dissection.