.Life-long monitoring

During life-long monitoring three main parameters can be analysed:

  • Transition from in-hive tasks to outside tasks.
  • Lifespan of every tagged bee as defined by the period from emergence until the day of the last registration.
  • Times spent outside / inside the hive and their changes over time, e.g. in relation to the age of the bees or to circadian activity patterns, foraging conditions, or in response to various treatments.

Mostly, these procedures require individually tagged bees of known age (see section 2.3 and the section on obtaining adult and brood of known age in the BEEBOOK paper on miscellaneous methods (Human et al., 2013). All newly emerged bees need to be tagged with transponders and introduced into a registration colony with RFID-scanners installed at the hive entrance.