2.2. Narcotizing bees

Sometimes, bees need to be narcotized, for example to mark them individually, to fix plates or transponders to them or to mount them in holders for measuring their gustatory responsiveness. To do this, different options are available. Most frequently, individuals are briefly cooled to immobility on ice (Friedrich et al., 2004; Iqbal and Müller, 2007; Rueppell et al., 2007) or in a refrigerator (Scheiner et al., 1999; 2001a, b; Erber et al., 2006). But CO2 narcosis is also possible. For more details on narcotizing bees refer to the section ‘Standard methods for immobilising, killing and storing adult Apis mellifera in the laboratory’ in the BEEBOOK paper on miscellaneous methods (Human et al., 2013).