5.5. Pitfalls

Despite the usefulness of these learning paradigms, one has to bear in mind that the interpretation of why a bee does not extend its proboscis can be difficult. The bee might not find the reward motivating enough or it might have forgotten the association of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli, to name just a few examples. This is certainly a drawback of this method, which cannot be overcome completely by experimental controls. Nevertheless, a large number of bees tested (around 30 – 40 bees per group) will yield robust results for interpretation.