6.2.2. The study of “emotions”
For researchers interested in studying “emotions” in bees, the signalled avoidance paradigm is ideal. One protocol is known as “fear conditioning.” Here a conditioned stimulus is paired with an aversive event in a response-independent fashion. As applied to the shuttle box, the bee receives response-independent pairings of light with shock. Fear conditioning is measured indirectly by the effect of light only trials on some on-going behaviour (known as conditioned suppression) or directly by observing the conditioned response to light such as sting extension.