6.5.2. Nonstandard aversive stimuli

Electric shock is the aversive stimulus most often used in learning experiments because of its ease of use, controllability, and standardization However, there are other, less standardized aversive stimuli that can be used. Calcium chloride, citric acid and rapid changes in temperature have been shown to act as aversive stimuli for bees (Voskresenskaja and Lopatina, 1953; Lopatina, 1971). Various agrochemicals and repellents have also been used as aversive stimuli in conditioning experiments (Abramson et al., 2006a, b; Abramson et al., 2010a) as have formic acid (Abramson, 1986), GSM cellular phone radiation (Mixson et al., 2009) and "virtual reality" (Abramson et al., 1996).