8.1. Introduction

Flight is an indispensable ability of honey bees. Flight physiology of adults may be altered by larval and adult conditions like nutrition, developmental temperature, pests, pathogens or pesticides but also by external factors such as temperature or dust. The flight capability and flight performance can be measured in tethered flight using a flight mill or roundabout. These devices were originally constructed to investigate thermoregulation or flight metabolism (sugar utilization, oxygen consumption) of honey bees and other insects (Sotavalta, 1954; Jungmann et al., 1989).