6.2.3. Media contamination by microorganisms

Media contamination by microorganisms may severely affect the results directly interfering with glandular performance or by producing substances that may bias the results. Thus, only sterilised media should be used. Although the bees are themselves not sterile, the incubation should be maintained with care to reduce contamination especially when long term incubation is required. In some cases, surface sterilization of the bee by brief dipping in 70% ethanol prior to tissue dissection is recommended.