2. Bacterial community analysis using next-generation sequencing (NGS)

Currently, one of the easiest and more cost effective tools available for characterizing the microbial communities associated with honey bee guts is sequencing the diversity of the 16S rRNA gene in honey bee guts using NGS technology. NGS surveys have provided insights into the composition of bee gut-associated bacterial communities, symbiont host-specificity, and conditions conducive to the co-evolutionary dynamics of bees and their associated microbes (Ahn et al., 2012; Martinson et al., 2012; McFrederick et al., 2012; Moran et al., 2012; Newton and Roeselers, 2012).