2.1.4. Library construction

Library construction is the process of preparing DNA for sequencing on the NGS platform of choice. This process typically consists of ligating platform-specific adapters to the flanking ends of DNA fragments. Kits are typically available for this step. For 16S rRNA gene sequence (henceforth 16S amplicon) bacterial community analyses, sequencing adapters and barcodes for sample identification are designed into 16S amplicon universal primers and added in the PCR step above. As using paired-end reads to analyse bacterial communities becomes more commonplace, primer design and library construction will continue to evolve (Degnan and Ochman, 2012).