4.6.2. Alpha-1 characteristics

This group of bacteria has not been formally described, but in our experience they form smooth, round, white colonies after 1 day of growth (Fig. 4; PE, unpublished). The Alpha-1 group belongs to the class Alphaproteobacteria and is related to several ant-associated bacteria and to Bartonella, a genus that includes opportunistic intracellular parasites (Jeyaprakash et al., 2003; Babriendier et al. 2007; Martinson et al., 2011).  Alpha-1 is typically found at low frequency (<4 %) in the honey bee gut and are probably not present in all individuals (Moran et al., 2012).