4.7. Other bacteria

Alpha-2.1 and Alpha-2.2 (Martinson et al., 2011) are two other groups within the Alphaproteobacteria commonly found in the bee gut. Alpha-2.1 is related to Gluconobacter and Acetobacteraceae, while Alpha-2.2 is related to Saccharibacter floricola, a bacterium associated with flowers (Martinson et al., 2011).  Members of both of these groups have been cultured (Mohr and Tebbe, 2007), although they remain poorly studied.  These two groups are typically found at low frequency in the bee gut (<6%), although they appear to be present in most individuals (Moran et al., 2012).

Other bacterial genera may also be recovered from culturing efforts, such as Pantoea (Loncaric et al., 2009) and Bacillus (Evans and Armstrong, 2006).  However, these likely represent transient members of the bee microbiota, as they are not among the dominant groups found in culture-independent studies.