4. Maintenance of queens and drones and factors affecting queen performance

Given proper care, instrumentally inseminated queens are capable of heading productive colonies and enduring the rigors of performance testing in the field (Cobey, 2007). Many factors that influence queen performance can be optimized through proper beekeeping management practices. The quality of the insemination, in terms of technique and sanitation, are critical. The treatment of queens before and after the insemination will influence the amount of semen stored and queen performance. Natural conditions should be maintained as much as possible.