4.3. Factors influencing results of instrumental insemination

  1. The optimal age for insemination of queens is 5 to 14 days post emergence.
    a. Queens inseminated older than 2 weeks tend to store less sperm in their spermathecae. Queens inseminated less than 4 days old have high mortality (Woyke and Jasinski, 1976).
  2. The standard semen dosage given to each queen is 8 to 12 µl.
    a. An insufficient semen dose can result in premature queen supersedure or premature queen failure.
  3. Post-insemination care of queens influences sperm storage (Woyke 1979).
    a. Active movement of queen, appropriate brood nest temperatures, and attendance by worker bees promote sperm migration into the queen’s spermatheca.
    b. Queens confined in cages after insemination tend to store less sperm and retain semen in their oviducts.