10. Acknowledgements

We acknowledge: the Ricola Foundation - Nature and Culture; COST (Action FA0803); the UK Insect Pollinators Initiative (joint BBSRC, NERC, DEFRA, Scottish Government, Wellcome Trust) grant BB/I000100/1; the EU (FP7 project Bee Doc, FP7-KBBE-2009-03-244956); and the German BLM project FitBee for providing financial support. Additionally, we thank: members of the Swiss Bee Research Centre, especially Jean-Daniel Charrière and Verena Kilchenmann; Marie-Pierre Chauzat (Anses); Alex English (Iotron); and editor Vincent Dietemann for providing fruitful discussions.