3.2. Where the response variable is mortality during laboratory experiments involving adult workers

If survival of workers is the response variable of interest, a typical survival analysis can be undertaken, such as the parametric Kaplan-Meier survival analysis for ‘censored’ data (so-called right-censored data in which bees are sampled from a cage during an experiment) or the non-parametric Cox proportional hazards model (Cox model) for analysing effects of two or more ‘covariates’, or predictor variables, such as spore intensity of the microsporidian Nosema ceranae or black queen cell virus titres (Zuur et al., 2009; Hendriksma et al., 2011).