4.4. Recommendations for choosing and collecting adult workers for laboratory experiments

The choice of type of honey bees to use during experiments, as well as when and how to collect them, is intimately tied to the hypothesis being tested. At a minimum, all possible characteristics of the experimental individuals (e.g. age), source colonies, (e.g. strength, health, subspecies), surroundings (e.g. availability of multiple nectar and pollen sources), as well as conditions during collection (e.g. time of day and year, weather conditions) and collection method (e.g. brushing from a brood frame versus collecting exiting flying workers using a hive entrance trap), should be described in detail in the methods section of each publication. Importantly, researchers must ensure that all treatments contain experimental honey bees were handled identically. The easiest approach to guarantee this is to mix honey bees from all sources evenly among all experimental cages, as suggested in this paper in section 2.4. Additional information on choosing source colonies is provided by Pirk et al. (2013) in the statistics paper of the BEEBOOK.