5.1. Types of cages in which to maintain adult workers in the laboratory

Generally, three types of cage design exist for maintaining adult worker honey bees outside of a colony in a laboratory:

a) caged on a frame (i.e. using a frame cage)
b) caged off a frame in a group (i.e. using a hoarding cage)
c) caged off a frame individually (i.e. using an isolation cage)

Even within these types numerous variants exist (Fig. 11). Yet, despite the diversity of cage designs, very little work has investigated the influence of these differences on results of experiments using honey bees.

Fig. 11. The diverse assemblage of cages used for honey bee research by those attending a COLOSS workshop in November 2011 in Bologna, Italy. 

Figure 11