5.2.2. Supplementary frame and hoarding cage materials to be used when maintaining adult workers in the laboratory

Additional materials, such as comb or wax foundation (e.g. Czekońska, 2007) and plastic devices for releasing queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) (e.g. Alaux et al., 2010), are sometimes used to provide more realistic conditions to honey bees. For the former, comb and wax foundation should be used with caution because both can contain chemical residues (Mullin et al., 2010) and pathogens (Melathopoulos et al., 2004); however, organic wax foundation is available. For the latter, QMP, composed of 5 compounds ( (E)-9-oxodec-2-enoic acid (9-ODA), both enantiomers of 9-hydroxydec-2-enoic acid (9-HDA), methyl p-hydroxybenzoate (HOB) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylethanol (HVA) ) (Slessor et al., 1988), likely promotes honey bee health and reduces stress, as well as influences brain development (Morgan et al., 1998), resistance to starvation (Fischer and Grozinger, 2008), age-related division of labour (Pankiw et al., 1998), and worker ovary activation (Hoover et al., 2003). More studies are needed to fully understand effects of QMP on caged honey bees before it can be recommended as a regular requirement for maintaining adults in the laboratory.