6.5.1. Honey bee ventilation requirements

Honey bees rely on a permanent supply of oxygen to survive. Because carbon dioxide within colonies can reach levels much higher than normal atmospheric levels (0.04%)  (Nicolas and Sillans, 1989), honey bees use fanning and gas exchange events to expel carbon dioxide-rich air (Southwick and Moritz, 1987; Nicolas and Sillans, 1989) to maintain levels between  0.1 - 4.3% (Seeley, 1974). Carbon dioxide can also reach high levels within cages and incubators that do not provide adequate air exchange and ventilation with ambient fresh air.