6.5.2. Recommendations for incubator ventilation with ambient air for maintaining adult workers in the laboratory

It is extremely important that cages allow for appropriate ventilation, and that incubators are equipped with air exchangers or passive vents at a minimum. Although air exchange occurs every time an incubatoris opened, this technique should not be relied upon because air exchange should be permanent and opening the chamber regularly will disturb caged workers. To minimise effects of potential differences in gas composition within an incubator on experimental honey bees, cages of each treatment group should be homogenously distributed in the useable space of an incubator and a small fan should be used to promote air homogenisation.  More information on effects of carbon dioxide on honey bees can be found in the BEEBOOK paper on miscellaneous methods (Human et al., 2013).