7.2.1. Types of carbohydrates to provide to caged adult workers in the laboratory

Honey bees are capable of surviving long periods on carbohydrates alone, although median lethal time (LT50) can vary significantly by substrate (i.e. LT50 = 56.3, 37.7, and 31.3 days, respectively, for sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, and honey) (Barker and Lehner, 1978). Additionally, recent data suggest type of carbohydrate can influence detoxification in honey bees (Johnson et al., 2012), further underlining the importance of carefully choosing source of carbohydrate to feed to workers.