Providing honey to caged adult workers in the laboratory

Honey is the natural carbohydrate source of honey bees, and can be easily collected from a colony; however, it is difficult to standardize given variation in composition due to floral diversity (e.g. White and Doner, 1980). Additionally, it may contain chemical residues (Chauzat et al., 2009) and microflora (Gilliam, 1997), including pathogens (Bakonyi et al., 2003), despite its antibacterial properties (Kwakman et al., 2010). Honey can be collected from honey supers and provided pure, diluted 1:1 (volume/volume) with tap water, or as a paste consisting of 70% (volume/volume) powdered sucrose and 30% pure honey (e.g. Alaux et al., 2011a). Refer to section 7.5 in this paper for a discussion on providing water to caged honey bees in the laboratory.