18.104.22.168. Sterilising bee products to destroy pathogens using temperature
Temperature treatment can be used to sterilise food stuffs; however, nutrient degradation may occur (Barajas et al., 2012). For example, heat treating N. apis spores at 49 °C for 24 hours will result in their destruction; whereas, freezing N. ceranae at -18 °C for one week significantly reduces numbers of infective spores (Fries, 2010). Heating honey greater than 49°C should be performed with caution due to the possible production of dangerous levels of toxic hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) (Brodschneider and Crailsheim, 2010).