8. Queens and drones

So far we have discussed how to properly maintain worker honey bees under in vitro laboratory conditions, mainly ignoring queens and drones. Because workers are generally required to provide food via trophallaxis to both of these groups, many of the methods described above, such as incubator conditions, cage designs, and nutrition, are also valid for maintaining adult queens and drones in the laboratory. When choosing worker attendants, researchers must also consider that workers can horizontally transmit pathogens to both drones and queens (e.g. Higes et al., 2009).