Standard methods for maintaining adult Apis mellifera in cages under in vitro laboratory conditions.

Geoffrey R Williams1,2*†, Cédric Alaux3, Cecilia Costa4, Támas Csáki5, Vincent Doublet6, Dorothea Eisenhardt7, Ingemar Fries8, Rolf Kuhn1, Dino P McMahon6,9, Piotr Medrzycki4, Tomás E Murray6, Myrsini E Natsopoulou6, Peter Neumann1,10, Randy Oliver11, Robert J Paxton6,9, Stephen F Pernal12, Dave Shutler13, Gina Tanner1, Jozef J M van der Steen14, and Robert Brodschneider15†.

1Swiss Bee Research Centre, Agroscope Liebefeld-Posieux Research Station ALP-HARAS, Bern, Switzerland.
2Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.
3INRA, UR 406 Abeilles et Environnement, Avignon, France.
4Agricultural Research Council - Honey bee and Silkworm Research Unit (CRA-API), Bologna, Italy.
5Institute for Wildlife Conservation, Szent István University, Gödöllő, Hungary.
6Institute for Biology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany.
7Department of Biology / Chemistry / Pharmacy, Institute for Biology-Neurobiology, Free University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
8Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
9School of Biological Sciences, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, UK.
10Department of Zoology & Entomology, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa., Grass Valley, California, USA.
12Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Beaverlodge, Alberta, Canada.
13Department of Biology, Acadia University, Wolfville, Nova Scotia, Canada.
14Bee Unit, Plant Research International, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
15Department of Zoology, Karl-Franzens-University, Graz, Austria.

Received 15 May 2012, accepted subject to revision 9 July 2012, accepted for publication 18 November 2012.

*Corresponding author:

All authors, except those listed first and last, are alphabetical