2.1.2.2. Chemical and physical immobilisation

In some cases a general anaesthetic is needed to facilitate the handling or immobilisation of very young or mature adult honey bees because of insufficient exoskeletal development or high activity, respectively. Both chemical (e.g., carbon dioxide, diethyl ether, nitrogen, ethyl acetate) and physical (e.g. chilling, freezing) anaesthetics are available. Below we discuss only the two most commonly used methods employed by researchers to immobilise adult honey bees.