Heat can also be used to kill honey bees, although its use is much less common than freezing, likely because it results in the denaturation of macromolecules such as nucleic acids (e.g. DNA and RNA) and proteins that in many cases may be studied post-mortem. Honey bees will typically die within one hour of exposure to 46°C (Allen, 1959), but this will depend on crop content and relative humidity.