4.6. Digital monitoring of brood development via location recognition

Jeker et al. (2011) designed a method to record subsequent development stages in a fixed number of cells selected on a frame at the start of a study following a (pesticide) treatment or other environmental impact. This technique is used as a digital documentation and an automation of the data evaluation according to the OECD guidance document 75 (2007). The method is used for GLP-compliant Eco toxicity tests, focused on subsequent recording of the content of marked cells during brood development. Besides studying the impact of pesticides it can be applied to follow brood development in studies about the impact of pathogens e.g. virus, brood pathogens and in-hive conditions.