4.7.2. Methods for pollen collection

These methods are mostly used for studies on pesticide residues (Dively and Kamel, 2012, see also the BEEBOOK paper on toxicology, Medrzycki et al., 2013) and nutritional content of pollen (e.g., Human and Nicolson, 2006; see references therein). Fresh pollen can be collected directly from flowers where the bees are foraging. There are three basic examples of fresh pollen collection; using bags over the flowers (section, by physically shaking the flowers over plastic trays (section or by gently brushing off the pollen from the male anthers with a paint brush (section Whenever fresh pollen is to be collected, flower buds that are open and ready to start shedding pollen, need to be covered with fine gauze or pollination bags the day before collection in order to prevent insect visitation and thus possible contamination. Bee collected pollen can be collected with pollen traps at the hive entrance or manually from the combs in which it has been stored (as bee bread). Ensuring quality of bee collected pollen