6. References

AASE, A L T O; AMDAM, G V; HAGEN, A; OMHOLT, S W (2005) A new method for rearing genetically manipulated honey bee workers. Apidologie 36: 293-299. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/apido:2005003

ACCORTI, M; LUTU, F; TARDUCCI, F (1991) Methods for collecting data on natural mortality in bee. Ethology, Ecology and Evolution 1: 123-126.

ALAUX, C; DUCLOZ, F; CRAUSER, D; LE CONTE, Y (2010) Diet effects on honey bee immunocompetence. Biology Letters 6: 562-565. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2009.0986

ALLEN, M D (1959) Respiration rates of worker honey bees of different ages and at different temperatures. Journal of Experimental Biology 36: 92-101.

ALLSOPP, M (2006) Analysis of Varroa destructor infestation of Southern African honey bee populations. Dissertation, University of Pretoria, South Africa. 285 pp.

AMDAM, G V; NORBERG, K; PAGE, R E; ERBER, J; SCHEINER, R (2006) Downregulation of vitellogenin gene activity increases the gustatory responsiveness of honey bee workers (Apis mellifera). Behavioural Brain Research 169: 201-205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2006.01.006

ANTÚNEZ, K; MARTIN-HERNANDEZ, R; PRIETO, L; MEANA, A; ZUNINO, P; HIGES, M (2009) Immune suppression in the honey bee (Apis mellifera) following infection by Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia). Environmental Microbiology 11(9): 2284-2290.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-2920.2009.01953.x

ARUNDEL, J; OLDROYD, B P; WINTER, S (2012) Modelling honey bee queen mating as a measure of feral colony density. Ecological Modelling  247: 48-57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2012.08.001

ATKINS, E L; TODD, F E; ANDERSON, L D (1970) Honey bee field research aided by Todd dead bee hive entrance trap. California Agriculture 24(10): 12-13.

AUSTIN, G H (1955) Effect of carbon dioxide anaesthesia on bee behaviour and expectation of life. Bee World  36(3): 45-47.

BAER, B; EUBEL, H; TAYLOR, N L; O’TOOLE, N; MILLAR, A H (2009) Insights into female sperm storage from the spermathecal fluid proteome of the honey bee Apis mellifera. Genome Biology 10(6): R67. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1186/gb-2009-10-6-r67

BAKER, H G; BAKER, I (1982) Chemical constituents of nectar in relation to pollination mechanisms and phylogeny. In M H Nitecki (Ed.). Biochemical aspects of evolutionary biology. University of Chicago Press; Chicago, USA. pp 131-171.

BARRON, A B; MALESZKA, J; MEER, R K V; ROBINSON, G E; MALESZKA, R (2007) Comparing injection, feeding and topical application methods for treatment of honey bees with octopamine. Journal of Insect Physiology 53: 187-194.

BAUDRY, E; SOLIGNAC, M; GARNERY, L; GRIES, M; CORNEUT, J-M; KOENIGER, N (1998) Relatedness among honey bees (Apis mellifera) of a drone congregation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B265: 2009-2014.

BAUM, K A; RUBINK, W L; PINTO, M A; COULSON, R N (2005) Spatial and temporal distribution and nest site characteristics of feral honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies in a coastal prairie landscape. Environmental Entomology 34: 610-618. http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/0046-225X-34.3.610

BENDAHOU, N; BOUNIAS, M; FLECHE, C (1999) Toxicity of cypermethrin and fenitrothion on the haemolymph carbohydrates, head acetylcholinesterase, and thoracic muscle Na+, K+-ATPase of emerging honey bees (Apis mellifera mellifera. L). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety  44: 139-146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/eesa.1999.1811

BERTHOLF, L M (1925) The moults of the honey bee. Journal of Economic Entomology 18: 380-384.

BEYE, M; HÄRTEL, S; HAGEN, A; HASSELMANN, M; OMHOLT, S W (2002) Specific developmental gene silencing in the honey bee using a homeobox motif. Insect Molecular Biology 11: 527-532.

http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1046/j.1365-2583.2002.00361.x

BRODSCHNEIDER, R; RIESSBERGER-GALLÉ, U; CRAILSHEIM, K (2009) Flight performance of artificially reared honey bees (Apis mellifera). Apidologie 40: 441-449. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/apido/2009006

BÜCHLER, R; ANDONOV, S; BIENEFELD, K; COSTA, C; HATJINA, F; KEZIC, N; KRYGER, P; SPIVAK, M; UZUNOV, A; WILDE, J (2013) Standard methods for rearing and selection of Apis mellifera queens. In V Dietemann; J D Ellis; P Neumann (Eds) The COLOSS BEEBOOK, Volume I: standard methods for Apis mellifera research. Journal of Apicultural Research 52(1): http://dx.doi.org/10.3896/IBRA.1.52.1.07

BUCHMANN, S L; THOENES, S C (1990) The electronic scale: honey bee colony as a management and research tool. Bee Science 1: 40-47.

CANTWELL, G E (1970) Standard methods for counting nosema spores. American Bee  Journal 110(6): 222-223.

CHÂLINE, N; RATNIEKS, F L W; RAINE, N E; BADCOCK, N S; BURKE, T (2004) Non-lethal sampling of honey bee, Apis mellifera, DNA using wing tips. Apidologie 35(3): 311-318. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1051/apido:2004015

CHEN, Y P; EVANS, J; HAMILTON, M; FELDLAUFER, M (2007) The influence of RNA integrity on the detection of honey bee viruses: molecular assessment of different sample storage methods. Journal of Apicultural Research 46(2): 81-87. http://dx.doi.org/10.3896/IBRA.1.46.2.03

CHEN, Y P; PETTIS, J S; COLLINS, A; FELDLAUFER, M F (2006) Prevalence and

transmission of honey bee viruses. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72(1): 606-611. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.72.1.606-611.2006

CHUDA-MICKIEWICZ, B; CZEKOÑSKA, K; SAMBORSKI, J; ROSTECKI, P (2012) Success rates for instrumental insemination of carbon dioxide and nitrogen anaesethetised honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens. Journal of Apicultural Research 51(1): 74-77. http://dx.doi.org/10.3896/IBRA.1.51.1.09

COBEY, S W; TARPY, D R ; WOYKE, J (2013) Standard methods for instrumental insemination of Apis mellifera queens. In V Dietemann; J D Ellis; P Neumann (Eds) The COLOSS BEEBOOK, Volume I: standard methods for Apis mellifera research. Journal of Apicultural Research 52(4):http://dx.doi.org/10.3896/IBRA.1.52.4.09

COLES, J A; ORKHAND, R K (1983) Modification of potassium movement through the retina of the drone (Apis mellifera) by glial uptake. Journal of Physiology 340 (1): 157-174.

CRAILSHEIM, K (1992) The flow of jelly within a honey bee colony. Journal of Comparative Physiology B162: 681-689. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00301617

CRANE, E (1999) The world history of beekeeping and honey hunting. Duckworth; London, USA. 720 pp.

CZEKONSKA, K (2007) Influence of carbon dioxide on Nosema apis infection of honey bees (Apis mellifera). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 95(2): 84-86.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jip.2007.02.001

DADE, H A (2009) Anatomy and dissection of the honey bee. International Bee Research Association; Cardiff, UK. 196 pp.

DAFNI, A (1992) Pollination ecology: a practical approach. Oxford University Press; Oxford, UK. 250 pp.

DAFNI, A; KEVAN, P G; HUSBAND, B C (2005) Practical pollination biology. Enviroquest Ltd; Cambridge, Ontario, Canada. 583 pp.

DAINAT, B; EVANS, J D; CHEN, Y P; NEUMANN, P (2011) Sampling RNA quality for diagnosis of honey bee viruses using quantitative PCR. Journal of Virological Methods 174(1-2): 150-152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2011.03.029

DE GRAAF, D C; ALIPPI, A M; ANTÚNEZ, K; ARONSTEIN, K A; BUDGE, G; DE KOKER, D; DE SMET, L; DINGMAN, D W; EVANS, J D; FOSTER, L J; FÜNFHAUS, A; GARCIA-GONZALEZ, E; GREGORC, A; HUMAN, H; MURRAY, K D; NGUYEN, B K; POPPINGA, L; SPIVAK, M; VANENGELSDORP, D; WILKINS, S; GENERSCH, E (2013) Standard methods for American foulbrood research. In V Dietemann; J D Ellis; P Neumann (Eds) The COLOSS BEEBOOK, Volume II: standard methods for Apis mellifera pest and pathogen research. Journal of Apicultural Research 52(1): http://dx.doi.org/10.3896/IBRA.1.52.1.11

DEGRANDI-HOFFMAN, G; CHEN, Y P; HUANG, E; HUANG, M H (2010) The effect of diet on protein concentration, hypopharyngeal gland development and virus load in worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). Journal of Insect Physiology 56: 1184-1191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinsphys.2010.03.017

DELAPLANE, K S; VAN DER STEEN, J; GUZMAN, E (2013) Standard methods for estimating strength parameters of Apis mellifera colonies. In V Dietemann; J D Ellis; P Neumann (Eds) The COLOSS BEEBOOK, Volume I: standard methods for Apis mellifera research. Journal of Apicultural Research 52(1): http://dx.doi.org/10.3896/IBRA.1.52.1.03

DE MIRANDA, J R; BAILEY, L; BALL, B V; BLANCHARD, P; BUDGE, G; CHEJANOVSKY, N; CHEN, Y-P; GAUTHIER, L; GENERSCH, E; DE GRAAF, D; RIBIÈRE, M; RYABOV, E; DE SMET, L VAN DER STEEN, J J M (2013) Standard methods for virus research in Apis mellifera. In V Dietemann; J D Ellis; P Neumann (Eds) The COLOSS BEEBOOK, Volume II: standard methods for Apis mellifera pest and pathogen research. Journal of Apicultural Research 52(4):http://dx.doi.org/10.3896/IBRA.1.52.4.22

DIETEMANN, V; ZHENG, H-Q; HEPBURN, C; HEPBURN, H R; JIN, S H; CREWE, R M; RADLOFF, S E; HU, F-L; PIRK, C W W (2008) Self-assessment in insects: honey bee queens know their own strength. PLoS ONE 3(1): e1412. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001412

DIVELY, G P; KAMEL, A (2012) Insecticide residues in pollen and nectar of a cucurbit crop and their potential exposure to pollinators. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 60: 4449-4456. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf205393x

DUAY, P; DE JONG, D; ENGELS, W (2003) Weight loss in drone pupae (Apis mellifera) multiply infested by Varroa destructor mites. Apidologie 34: 61-65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/apido:2002052

EBADI, R; GARY, N E; LORENZEN, K (1980) Effects of carbon dioxide and low temperature narcosis on honey bees, Apis mellifera. Environmental Entomology 9(1): 144-147.

EDGELL, G H (1949) The bee hunter. Harvard University Press; Cambridge, MA, USA.

ELLIS, J D; GRAHAM, J R; MORTENSEN, A (2013) Standard methods for wax moth research. In V Dietemann; J D Ellis; P Neumann (Eds) The COLOSS BEEBOOK, Volume II: standard methods for Apis mellifera pest and pathogen research. Journal of Apicultural Research 52(1):  http://dx.doi.org/10.3896/IBRA.1.52.1.10

ERBER, J (1975) The dynamics of learning in the honey bee (Apis mellifica carnica). Journal of Comparative Physiology 99(3): 231-242.

EVANS, J D; SCHWARZ, R S; CHEN, Y P; BUDGE, G; CORNMAN, R S; DE LA RUA, P; DE MIRANDA, J R; FORET, S; FOSTER, L; GAUTHIER, L; GENERSCH, E; GISDER, S; JAROSCH, A; KUCHARSKI, R; LOPEZ, D; LUN, C M; MORITZ, R F A; MALESZKA, R; MUÑOZ, I; PINTO, M A (2013) Standard methodologies for molecular research in Apis mellifera. In V Dietemann; J D Ellis; P Neumann (Eds) The COLOSS BEEBOOK, Volume I: standard methods for Apis mellifera research. Journal of Apicultural Research 52(4): http://dx.doi.org/10.3896/IBRA.1.52.4.11

FAROOQUI, T; ROBINSON, K; VAESSIN, H; SMITH, B H (2003) Modulation of early olfactory processing by an octopaminergic reinforcement pathway in the honey bee. The Journal of Neuroscience 23(12): 5370-5380.

FENOY, S; RUEDA, C; HIGES, M; MARTÍN-HERNÁNDEZ, R; DEL AGUILA, C (2009) High-level resistance of Nosema ceranae, a parasite of the honey bee, to temperature and desiccation. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 75(21): 6886-6889. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01025-09

FLETCHER, D J C (1978) The African bee, Apis mellifera adansonii, in Africa. Annual Review of Entomology 23: 151-171. 

FORSGREN, E; FRIES, I (2010) Comparative virulence of Nosema ceranae and Nosema apis in individual European honey bees. Veterinary Parasitology 170(3-4): 212-217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2010.02.010

FORSGREN, E; BUDGE, G E; CHARRIÈRE, J-D; HORNITZKY, M A Z (2013) Standard methods for European foulbrood research. In V Dietemann; J D Ellis, P Neumann (Eds) The COLOSS BEEBOOK: Volume II: Standard methods for Apis mellifera pest and pathogen research. Journal of Apicultural Research 52(1): http://dx.doi.org/10.3896/IBRA.1.52.1.12

FRIES, I; CHAUZAT, M-P; CHEN, Y-P; DOUBLET, V; GENERSCH, E; GISDER, S; HIGES, M; MCMAHON, D P; MARTÍN-HERNÁNDEZ, R; NATSOPOULOU, M; PAXTON, R J; TANNER, G; WEBSTER, T C; WILLIAMS, G R (2013) Standard methods for nosema research. In V Dietemann; J D Ellis, P Neumann (Eds) The COLOSS BEEBOOK: Volume II: Standard methods for Apis mellifera pest and pathogen research. Journal of Apicultural Research 52(1): http://dx.doi.org/10.3896/IBRA.1.52.1.14

FROST, E H; SHUTLER, D; HILLIER, N K (2011) Effects of cold immobilization and recovery period on honey bee learning, memory, and responsiveness to sucrose. Journal of Insect Physiology 57(10): 1385-1390. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinsphys.2011.07.001

GARY, N E (1960) A trap to quantitatively recover dead and abnormal honey bees from the hive. Journal of Economic Entomology 53(5): 782-785.

GLADSTONE, H C; GOWEN, I; GOWEN, J W (1964) Gamete-backcross matings in the honey bee. Genetics 50(6): 1443-1446.

HAGLER, J R; JACKSON, C G (2001) Methods for marking insects: current techniques and future prospects. Annual Review of Entomology 46: 511-543. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ento.46.1.511

HEFNER, E; HSIUNG, F; MCCOLLUM, T; RUBIO, T (2010) Comparison of count

reproducibility, accuracy and time to results between a haemocytometer and the TC10TM automated cell counter. Cell counting. Tech note 6003, Bio-Rad Laboratories; USA.

HEINRICH, B (1979) Thermoregulation of African and European honey bees during foraging, attack, and hive exits and returns. Journal of Experimental Biology 80: 217-229.

HENDERSON, C E (1992) Variability in the size of emerging drones and of drone and worker eggs in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies. Journal of Apicultural Research 31: 119-123.

HENDRIKSMA, H P; HÄRTEL, S (2010) A simple trap to measure worker bee mortality in small test colonies. Journal of Apicultural Research 49(2): 215-217. http://dx.doi.org/10.3896/IBRA.1.49.2.13

HERBERT, E W; SHIMANUKI, H (1978) Chemical composition and nutritive value of bee-collected and bee-stored pollen. Apidologie 9: 33-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/apido:19780103

HERBERT, E W; SHIMANUKI, H; ARGAUER, R J (1983) Effect of feeding pollen 

substitutes to colonies of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) exposed to carbaryl. Environmental Entomology 12: 758-762.

HRASSNIGG, N; CRAILSHEIM, K (1998) Adaptation of hypopharyngeal gland

development to the brood status of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies. Journal of Insect Physiology 44: 929-939. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-1910(98)00058-4

HRASSNIGG, N; CRAILSHEIM, K (2005) Differences in drone and worker physiology in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). Apidologie 36: 255-277. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/apido:2005015

HUMAN, H; NICOLSON, S W (2008) Flower structure and nectar availability in

Aloe greatheadii var. davyana: an evaluation of a winter nectar source for

honey bees. International Journal of Plant Sciences 169: 263-269. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/524113

HUMAN, H; NICOLSON, S W (2006) Nutritional content of fresh, bee-collected and stored pollen of Aloe greatheadii var. davyana (Asphodelaceae). Phytochemistry 67: 1486-1492. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2006.05.023

HUMAN, H; NICOLSON, S W; STRAUSS, K; PIRK, C W W; DIETEMANN, V (2007) Influence of pollen quality on ovarian development in honey bee workers (Apis mellifera scutellata). Journal of Insect Physiology 53(7): 649-655. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinsphys.2007.04.002

ILLIES, I; MÜHLEN, W; DÜCKER, G; SACHSER, N (1999) A study of undertaking behaviour of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) by use of different bee traps. In L P Belzunces; C Pélissier; G B Lewis (Eds). Hazards of pesticides to bees. Avignon, France, 7-9 September. pp 237-244.

ILLIES, I; MÜHLEN, W; DÜCKER, G; SACHSER, N (2002) The influence of different bee traps on undertaking behaviour of the honey bee and development of a new trap. Apidologie 33: 315-326. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/apido:2002014

JACKSON, D E; HART, A G (2009) Does sanitation facilitate sociality? Animal Behaviour 77: e1-e5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2008.09.013

JAFFÉ, R; DIETEMANN, V; ALLSOPP, M H; COSTA, C; CREWE, R M; DALL’OLIO, R; DE LA RÚA, P; EL-NIWEIRI, M A A; FRIES, I; KEZIC, N; MEUSEL, M; PAXTON, R J; SHAIBI, T; STOLLE, E; MORITZ, R F A (2009a) Estimating the density of honey bee colonies across their natural range to fill the gap in pollinator decline censuses. Conservation Biology 24: 583-593. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01331.x

JAFFÉ, R; DIETEMANN, V; CREWE, R M; MORITZ, R F A (2009b) Temporal variation in the genetic structure of a drone congregation area: an insight into the population dynamics of wild and African honey bees (Apis mellifera scutellata). Molecular Ecology 18: 1511-1522. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2009.04143.x

JAY, S C (1962) Colour changes in honey bee pupae. Bee World 43: 119-122.

JEAN-PROST, P; MÉDORI, P; KAULA, R K (1994) Apiculture: know the bee, manage the apiary. Intercept; Andover, UK.

JENSEN, A B; ARONSTEIN, K; FLORES, J M; VOJVODIC, S; PALACIO, M A; SPIVAK, M (2013) Standard methods for fungal brood disease research. In V Dietemann; J D Ellis, P Neumann (Eds) The COLOSS BEEBOOK: Volume II: Standard methods for Apis mellifera pest and pathogen research. Journal of Apicultural Research 52(1): http://dx.doi.org/10.3896/IBRA.1.52.1.13

JOHANNSMEIER, M F (2001) Beekeeping in South Africa. Plant Protection Handbook No. 14, Agricultural Research Council; Pretoria, South Africa. 288 pp.

KEARNS, C A; INOUYE, D W (1993) Techniques for pollination biologists. University Press of Colorado; Niwot, Colorado, USA. 583 pp.

KLEINSCHMIDT, G J; KONDOS, A C (1978) The effect of dietary protein on colony performance. Australian Beekeeper 80: 251-257.

KOCHER, S D; RICHARD, F J; TARPY, D R; GROZINGER, C M (2008) Genomic analysis of post-mating changes in the honey bee queen (Apis mellifera). BMC Genomics 9(232): 1-15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-9-232

KÖHLER, A; PIRK, C W W; NICOLSON, S W (2012) Simultaneous stressors: additive effects of an immune challenge and dietary toxin are detrimental to honey bees. Journal of Insect Physiology 58: 918-923. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinsphys.2012.04.007

KOYWIWATTRAKUL, P; THOMPSON, G J; SITTHIPRANEED, S; OLDROYD, B P; MALESZKA, R (2005) Effects of carbon dioxide narcosis on ovary activation and gene expression in worker honey bees, Apis mellifera. Journal of Insect Science 5: 36.

KUCHARSKI, R; MALESZKA, R (2003) Transcriptional profiling reveals multifunctional roles for transferrin in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Journal of Insect Science 3: 1-8.

KUCHARSKI, R; MALESZKA, J; FORET, S; MALESZKA, R (2008) Nutritional control of reproductive status in honey bees via DNA methylation. Science 319: 1827-1830. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1153069

LANGENBERGER, M W; DAVIS, A R (2002) Temporal changes in floral nectar production, reabsorption, and composition associated with dichogamy in annual caraway (Carum carvi; Apiaceae). American Journal of Botany 89(10): 1588-1598. http://dx.doi.org/10.3732/ajb.89.10.1588

LAUGHTON, A M; BOOTS, M; SIVA-JOTHY, M T (2011) The ontogeny of immunity in the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. following an immune challenge. Journal of Insect Physiology 57: 1023-1032. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinsphys.2011.04.020

LE CONTE, Y; CORNUET, J M (1989) Variability of the post-capping stage duration of the worker brood in three different races of Apis mellifera. In R Cavalloro (Ed.). Proceedings of the Meeting of the EC-Experts’ Group, Udine 1988. CEC; Luxembourg. pp. 171-174.

LOZANO, V C; ARMENGAUD, C; GAUTHIER, M (2001) Memory impairment induced by cholinergic antagonists injected into the mushroom bodies of the honey bee. Journal of Comparative Physiology A187: 249-254. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s003590100196

MACKENSEN, O (1947) Effect of carbon dioxide on initial oviposition of artificially

inseminated and virgin queen bees. Journal of Economic Entomology 40(3): 344-349.

MAISTRELLO, L; LODESANI, M; COSTA, C; LEONARDI, F; MARANI, G; CALDON, M; MUTINELLI, F; GRANATO, A (2008) Screening of natural compounds for the control of nosema disease in honey bees. Apidologie 39: 436-445. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/apido:2008022

MARTIN, S J (1994) Ontogenesis of the mite Varroa jacobsoni Oud. in worker brood of the honey bee Apis mellifera L. under natural conditions. Experimental and Applied Acarology 18: 87-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF000550033

MARTIN, S J (1995) Ontogenesis of the mite Varroa jacobsoni Oud. in the drone brood of the honey bee Apis mellifera L. under natural conditions. Experimental and Applied Acarology 19(4): 199-210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00130823

MCLELLAN, A R (1977) Honey bee colony weight as an index of honey production and nectar flow: a critical evaluation. Journal of Applied Ecology 14: 401-408.

MEDRZYCKI, P; GIFFARD, H; AUPINEL, P; BELZUNCES, L P; CHAUZAT, M-P; CLAßEN, C; COLIN, M E; DUPONT, T; GIROLAMI, V; JOHNSON, R; LECONTE, Y; LÜCKMANN, J; MARZARO, M; PISTORIUS, J; PORRINI, C; SCHUR, A; SGOLASTRA, F; SIMON DELSO, N; VAN DER STEEN, J; WALLNER, K; ALAUX, C; BIRON, D G; BLOT, N; BOGO, G; BRUNET, J-L; DELBAC, F; DIOGON, M; EL ALAOUI, H; TOSI, S; VIDAU, C (2013) Standard methods for toxicology research in Apis mellifera. In V Dietemann; J D Ellis; P Neumann (Eds) The COLOSS BEEBOOK, Volume I: standard methods for Apis mellifera research. Journal of Apicultural Research 52(4): http://dx.doi.org/10.3896/IBRA.1.52.4.14

MEIKLE, W G; HOLST, H (2006) Using balances linked to data loggers to monitor honey bee colonies. Journal of Apicultural Research 45: 39-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/apido:2008055

MEIKLE, W G; RECTOR, B G; MERCADIER, G; HOLST, N (2008) Within-day variation in continuous hive weight data as a measure of honey bee colony activity. Apidologie 39: 694-707. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/apido:2008055

MICHELETTE, E R; SOARES, A E E (1993) Characterization of preimaginal developmental stages in Africanized honey bee workers (Apis mellifera L). Apidologie 24: 431-440. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/apido:19930410

MILUM, V G (1930) Variations in time of development of the honey bee. Journal of Economic Entomology 23: 441-447.

MORITZ, R F A; DIETEMANN, V; CREWE, R M (2008) Determining colony densities in wild honey bee populations (Apis mellifera) with linked microsatellite DNA markers. Journal of Insect Conservation 12: 455-459.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10841-007-9078-5

MULLIN, C A; FRAZIER, M; FRAZIER, J L; ASHCRAFT, S; SIMONDS, R; VANENGELSDORP, D; PETTIS, J S (2010) High levels of miticides and agrochemicals in North American apiaries: implications for honey bee health. PLoS ONE 5(3): e9754. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009754

NAUG, D; GIBBS, A (2009) Behavioural changes mediated by hunger in honey bees infected with Nosema ceranae. Apidologie 40(6): 595-599. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/apido/2009039

NEUMANN, P; PIRK, C W W; SCHÄFER, M O; EVANS, J D; PETTIS, J S; TANNER, G; WILLIAMS, G R; ELLIS, J D (2013) Standard methods for small hive beetle research. In V Dietemann; J D Ellis, P Neumann (Eds) The COLOSS BEEBOOK: Volume II: Standard methods for Apis mellifera pest and pathogen research. Journal of Apicultural Research 52(4): http://dx.doi.org/10.3896/IBRA.1.52.4.19

NGUYEN, B K; SAEGERMAN, C; PIRARD, C; MIGNON, J; WIDART, J; THIRIONET, B; VERHEGGEN, F J; BERKVENS, D; DE PAUW, E; HAUBRUGE, E (2009) Does imidacloprid seed-treated maize have an impact on honey bee mortality? Journal of Economic Entomology 102(2): 616-623. http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/029.102.0220

NICOLAS, G; SILLANS, D (1989) Immediate and latent effects of carbon dioxide on insects. Annual Review of Entomology 34: 97-116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ento.34.1.97

NICOLSON, S W (2008) Water homeostasis in bees, with the emphasis on sociality. Journal of Experimental Biology 212: 429-434. http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.022343

NICOLSON, S W; HUMAN, H (2008) Bees get a head start on honey production. Biology Letters 4: 299-301. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2008.0034

NICOLSON, S W; NEPI, M (2005) Dilute nectar in dry atmospheres: nectar secretion patterns in Aloe castanea (Asphodelaceae). International Journal of Plant Sciences 166: 227-233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/427616

NICOLSON, S W; NEPI, M; PACINI, E (2007) Nectaries and Nectar. Springer; Dordrecht, The Netherlands. 396 pp.

ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT (OECD) (2007) Guidance document on the honey bee (Apis mellifera l.) brood test under semi-field conditions Number 75. ENV/JM/MONO22.

OKADA, R; AKAMATSU, T; IWATA, K; IKENO, H; KIMURA, T; OHASHI, M; AONUMA, H; ITO, E (2012) Waggle dance effect: dancing in autumn reduces the mass loss of a honey bee colony. The Journal of Experimental Biology 215: 1633-1641. http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.068650

OLDROYD, B P; THEXTON, E G; LAWLER, S H; CROZIER, R H (1997) Population demography of Australian feral bees (Apis mellifera). Oecologia 111: 381-387. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s004420050249

OOMEN, P; DE RUIJTER, A; VAN DER STEEN, J (1992) Method for honey bee brood feeding tests with insect growth-regulating insecticides. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO 22: 613-616.

PACINI, E; NEPI, M (2007) Nectar production and presentation. In S W Nicolson; M Nepi; E Pacini (Eds). Nectaries and nectar. Springer; Dordrecht, The Netherlands. pp. 177-182.

PACINI, E; NEPI, M; VESPRINI, J L (2003) Nectar biodiversity: a short review. Plant Systematics and Evolution 238: 7-21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00606-002-0277-y

PANKIW, T; PAGE, R E (2003) Effect of pheromones, hormones, and handling on sucrose response thresholds of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). Journal of Comparative Physiology A189(9): 675-684. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00359-003-0442-y

PAUL, J (1975) Cell and tissue Culture. Churchill Livingstone; London, UK. 102 pp.

PEREZ, J L; HIGES, M; SUAREZ, M; LLORENTE, J; MEANA, A (2001) Easy ways to determine honey bee mortality using dead-bee traps. Journal of Apicultural Research  40(1): 25-28.

PERNAL, S F; CURRIE, R W (2000) Pollen quality of fresh and 1-year-old single pollen

diets for worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). Apidologie 31: 387-409. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/apido:2000130

PICARD-NIZOU, A L; GRISON, R; OLSEN, L; PIOCHE, C; ARNOLD, G; PHAM-DELÈGUE, M H (1997) Impact of proteins used in plant genetic engineering: toxicity and behavioral study in the honey bee. Journal of Economic Entomology 90: 1710-1716.

PIRK, C W W; DE MIRANDA, J R; FRIES, I; KRAMER, M; PAXTON, R; MURRAY, T; NAZZI, F; SHUTLER, D; VAN DER STEEN, J J M; VAN DOOREMALEN, C (2013) Statistical guidelines for Apis mellifera research. In V Dietemann; J D Ellis; P Neumann (Eds) The COLOSS BEEBOOK, Volume I: standard methods for Apis mellifera research. Journal of Apicultural Research 52(4):http://dx.doi.org/10.3896/IBRA.1.52.4.13

PORRINI, C; GHINI, S; GIROTTI, S; SABATINI, A G; GATTAVECCHIA, E; CELLI, G (2002a) Use of honey bees as bioindicators of environmental pollution in Italy. In J Devillers; M-H Pham-Delegue (Eds). Honey bees: estimating the environmental impact of chemicals. Taylor and Francis; Florence, Italy. pp. 186-247.

PORRINI, C; MEDRZYCKI, P; BENTIVOGLI, L; CELLI, G (2002b) Studies to improve the performance of dead honey bee collection traps for monitoring bee mortality. In VIII Simposio Internazionale ICPBR on hazards of pesticides to bees, Bologna, Italy, 4-6 September 2002. pp 29.

PORRINI, C; SABATINI, A G; GIROTTI, S; GHINI, S; MEDRZYCKI, P; GRILLENZONI, F; BORTOLOTTI, L; GATTAVECCHIA, E; CELLI, G (2003) Honey bees and bee products as monitors of the environmental contamination. Apiacta 38: 63-70.

PYKE, G H; WASER, N M (1981) The production of dilute nectars by hummingbird and honeyeater flowers. Biotropica 13: 260-270. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2387804

REMBOLD, H; KREMER, J-P; ULRICH, G M (1980) Characterisation of postembryonic developmental stages of the females castes of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. Apidologie 11: 29-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/apido:19800104

RICHARD, F-J; AUBERT, A; GROZINGER, C M (2008) Modulation of social interactions by immune stimulation in honey bee, Apis mellifera, workers. BMC Biology 6: 50.

ROBINSON, G E; VISSCHER, P K (1984) Effect of low temperature narcosis on honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) foraging behaviour. Florida Entomologist 67(4): 568-570. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3494466

ROGERS, S R; STAUB, B (2013) Standard use of Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques in honey bee research. In V Dietemann; J D Ellis; P Neumann (Eds) The COLOSS BEEBOOK, Volume I: standard methods for Apis mellifera research. Journal of Apicultural Research 52(4):http://dx.doi.org/10.3896/IBRA.1.52.4.08

ROUBIK, D W; BUCHMANN, S L (1984) Nectar selection by Melipona and Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and the ecology of nectar intake by bee colonies in a tropical forest. Oecologia 61: 1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00379082

ROUBIK, D W; YANEGA, D; ALUJA, M; BUCHMANN, S L; INOUYE, D W (1995) On optimal nectar foraging by some tropical bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Apidologie 26: 197-211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/apido:19950303

ROULSTON, T H; CANE, J H (2000) Pollen nutritional content and digestibility for animals. Plant Systematics and Evolution 222: 187-209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00984102

RUEPPEL, O; HAYWORTH, M K; ROSS, N P (2010) Altruistic self-removal of health-

compromised honey bee workers from their hive. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 23: 1538-1546. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1420-9101.2010.02022.x

SAMMATARO, D; AVITABILE, A (2011) The beekeeper’s handbook. Cornell University Press; Ithaca, New York.

SASAKI, T; ISHIKAWA, H (2000) Transinfection of Wolbachia in the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella, by embryonic microinjection. Heredity 85: 130-135.

SCHEINER, R; ABRAMSON, C I; BRODSCHNEIDER, R; CRAILSHEIM, K; FARINA, W; FUCHS, S; GRÜNEWALD, B; HAHSHOLD, S; KARRER, M; KOENIGER, G; KOENIGER, N; MENZEL, R; MUJAGIC, S;  RADSPIELER, G; SCHMICKLl, T; SCHNEIDER, C; SIEGEL, A J; SZOPEK, M; THENIUS, R (2013) Standard methods for behavioural studies of Apis mellifera. In V Dietemann; J D Ellis; P Neumann (Eds) The COLOSS BEEBOOK, Volume I: standard methods for Apis mellifera research. Journal of Apicultural Research 52(4):http://dx.doi.org/10.3896/IBRA.1.52.4.04

SCHLÜNS, H; CROZIER, R H (2007) Relish regulates expression of antimicrobial peptide genes in the honey bee, Apis mellifera, shown by RNA interference. Insect Molecular Biology 16: 753-759.

SEELEY, T D (1983) Division of labour between scouts and recruits in honey bee foraging. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology 12: 253-259. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00290778

SEELEY, T D (1986) Honey bee ecology: a study of adaptation in social life. Princeton University Press; New Jersey, USA. 49 pp.

SEELEY T D; VISSCHER, P K (1985) Survival of honey bees in cold climates: the critical timing of colony growth and reproduction. Ecological Entomology 10: 81-88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2311.1985.tb00537.x

SHAIBI, T; LATTORF, H M G; MORITZ, R F A. (2008) A microsatellite DNA toolkit for studying population structure in Apis mellifera. Molecular Ecology Resources 8: 1034-1036. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-0998.2008.02146.x

STEYSKAL, G C; MURHPY, W L; HOOVER, E M (1986) Collecting and preserving insects and mites: techniques and tools. USDA Miscellaneous Publication no. 1443.

STONER, A; MOFFETT, J O; WARDECKER, A L (1979) The effect of the Todd dead bee trap, used alone and in combination with the Wardecker waterer, on colonies of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 2(3): 556-560.

STONER, K A; EITZER, B D (2012) Movement of soil-applied Imidacloprid and Thiamethoxam into nectar and pollen of squash (Cucurbita pepo). PLoS ONE 7(6): e39114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039114

STROBER, W (1997) Monitoring cell growth. In J E Coligan; A M Kruisbeek; D H Margulies; E M Shevach; W Strober (Eds). Current protocols in immunology. John Wiley & Sons; Hoboken, New Jersey, USA.

TEIXEIRA, L; FERREIRA, A; ASHBURNER, M (2008) The bacterial symbiont Wolbachia induces resistance to RNA viral infections in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Biology 6: e1000002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000002

THRASYVOULOU, A T; BENTON, A W (1965) Rates of growth of honey bee larvae. Journal of Apicultural Research  21: 189-192.

VAUDO, A D; ELLIS, J D; CAMBRAY, G A; HILL, M (2012a) Honey bee (Apis mellifera capensis/A.m. scutellata hybrid) nesting behaviour in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Insectes Sociaux 59: 323-331. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00040-012-0223-0

VAUDO, A D; ELLIS, J D; CAMBRAY, G A; HILL, M (2012b) The effects of land use on honey bee (Apis mellifera) population density and colony strength parameters in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Journal of Insect Conservation 16: 601-611. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10841-011-9445-0

VISSCHER, P K; SEELEY T D (1989) Bee-lining as a research technique in ecological studies of honey bees. American Bee Journal 129: 536-539.

VISSCHER, P K; CRAILSHEIM, K; SHERMAN, G (1996) How do honey bees (Apis

mellifera) fuel their water foraging flights? Journal of Insect Physiology 42(11-12): 1089-1094. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-1910(96)00058-3

VON FRISCH, K (1967) The dance language and orientation of bees. Harvard University Press; Cambridge, MA, USA.

WALSH, P S; METZGAR, D A; HIGUCHI, R (1991) Chelex-100 as a medium for simple extraction of DNA for PCR-based typing from forensic material. BioTechniques 10: 506-513.

WANG, D I (1965) Growth rates of young queen and worker honey bee larvae. Journal of Apicultural Research  4: 3-5.

WANG, J (2004) Sibship reconstruction from genetic data with typing errors. Genetics 166: 1963-1979. http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/genetics.166.4.1963

WANNER, K W; NICHOLS, A S; WALDEN, K K O; BROCKMANN, A; LUETJE, C W; ROBERTSON, H M (2007) A honey bee odorant receptor for the queen substance 9-oxo-2-decenoic acid. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104(36): 14383-14388. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0705459104

WELLS, P H; WENNER, A M (1971) The influence of food scent on behaviour of foraging honey bees. Physiological Zoology 44: 191-209.

WENNER, A M; ALCOCK J E; MEADE D E (1992) Efficient hunting of feral colonies. Bee Science 2: 64-70.

WIESER, W (1973) Effects of temperature on ectothermic organisms. In W Wieser (Ed.). Temperature relations of ectotherms. A speculative review. Springer Verlag; Berlin, Germany. pp. 1-23.

WILLIAMS, J L (1987) Wind-directed trap for drone honey bees. Journal of Economic Entomology 80: 532-536.

WILLIAMS, G R; ALAUX, C; COSTA, C; CSÁKI, T; DOUBLET, V; EISENHARDT, D; FRIES, I; KUHN, R; MCMAHON, D P; MEDRZYCKI, P; MURRAY, T E; NATSOPOULOU, M E; NEUMANN, P; OLIVER, R; PAXTON, R J; PERNAL, S F; SHUTLER, D; TANNER, G; VAN DER STEEN, J J M; BRODSCHNEIDER, R (2013) Standard methods for maintaining adult Apis mellifera in cages under in vitro laboratory conditions. In V Dietemann; J D Ellis; P Neumann (Eds) The COLOSS BEEBOOK, Volume I: standard methods for Apis mellifera research. Journal of Apicultural Research 52(1): http://dx.doi.org/10.3896/IBRA.1.52.1.04

WILLIAMS, G R; ROGERS, R E L; KALKSTEIN, A L; TAYLOR, B A; SHUTLER, D; OSTIGUY, N (2009) Deformed wing virus in western honey bees (Apis mellifera) from Atlantic Canada and the first description of an overtly-infected emerging queen. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 101(1): 77-79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jip.2009.01.004

WILLIAMS, G R; SHAFER, A B A; ROGERS, R E L; SHUTLER, D; STEWART, D T (2008) First detection of Nosema ceranae, a microsporidian parasite of European honey bees (Apis mellifera), in Canada and central USA. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 97(2): 189-192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jip.2007.08.005

WILLIAMS, G R; SHUTLER, D; LITTLE, C M; BURGHER-MACLELLAN, K L; ROGERS, R E L (2011) The microsporidian Nosema ceranae, the antibiotic Fumagilin-B®, and western honey bee (Apis mellifera) colony strength. Apidologie 42(1): 15-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/apido/20100230.

WILSON, W T; ROTHENBUHLER, W C (1968) Resistance to American foulbrood in honey bees VIII. Effects of injecting Bacillus larvae spores into adults. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 12: 418-424. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-2011(68)90349-2

WINNEBECK, E C; MILLAR, C D; WARMAN, G R (2010) Why does insect RNA look degraded? Journal of Insect Science 10(159): 1-7.

WINSTON, M L (1987) The biology of the honey bee. Harvard University Press; Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, 281 pp.

WOYCIECHOWSKI, M; MORON, D (2009) Life expectancy and onset of foraging in the honey bee (Apis mellifera). Insectes Sociaux 56(2): 193-201. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00040-009-0012-6

WRIGHT, G A; MUSTARD, J A; SIMCOCK, N K; ROSS-TAYLOR, A A R; MCNICHOLAS, L D; POPESCU, A; MARION-POLL, F (2010) Parallel reinforcement pathways for conditioned food aversions in the honey bee. Current Biology 20: 2234-2240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2010.11.040

YAMANE, T; MIYATAKE, T (2010) Reduced female mating receptivity and activation of oviposition in two Callosobruchus species due to injection of biogenic amines. Journal of Insect Physiology 56: 271-276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinsphys.2009.10.011

YAÑEZ, O; ZHENG, H-Q; HU, F-L; NEUMANN, P; DIETEMANN, V (2012) A scientific note on Israeli acute paralysis virus infection of Eastern honey bee Apis cerana and vespine predator Vespa velutina. Apidologie 43(5): 587-589.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13592-012-0128-y

ZAYED, A; PACKER, L; GRIXTI, J C; RUZ, L; OWEN, R E; TORO, H (2005) Increased genetic differentiation in a specialist versus a generalist bee: implications for conservation. Conservation Genetics  6: 1017-1026. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10592-005-9094-5

ZHENG, H-Q; DIETEMANN, V; HU, F-L; CREWE, R M; PIRK, C W W (2012) A scientific note on the lack of effect of mandible ablation on the synthesis of royal scent by honey bee queens. Apidologie 43(4): 471-473. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13592-011-0114-9

ZHENG, H-Q; JIN, S H; HU, F-L; PIRK, C W W (2009a) Sustainable multiple queen colonies of honey bees, Apis mellifera ligustica. Journal of Apicultural Research 48(4): 284-289. http://dx.doi.org/10.3896/IBRA.1.48.4.09

ZHENG, H-Q; JIN, S H; HU, F-L; PIRK, C W W; DIETEMANN, V (2009b) Maintenance and application of multiple queen colonies in commercial beekeeping. Journal of Apicultural Research  48(4): 290-295. http://dx.doi.org/10.3896/IBRA.1.48.4.10