2.2.1. Bead-mill homogenizers
These are the best option for uniform and reproducible homogenization of small (individual) bee samples. The samples are mixed with glass, ceramic or steel 1-3 mm beads and extraction buffer in sturdy disposable plastic tubes and shaken at high velocity in a machine. They also provide consistent cell wall disruption of bacteria and other microbes for parasite/pathogen or microbiome surveys.
- Pros: Low-medium volume; rapid; uniform; no cross-contamination.
- Cons: Generally only
suitable for small bee samples (1-10 bees).
- Place single bee in a 2 ml screw-cap microcentrifuge tube.
- Add four 2mm glass beads.
- Add 500 μl ice-cold buffer.
For medium-large volume beadmills, increase the number of bees, beads and buffer in proportion to the maximum allowable volume of the disposable container.
- Make sure that the bead mill is balanced, if this is a requirement.
- Shake for 5-10 minutes at the highest setting.