2.2.4. Mortar and pestle

Traditional manual method for pulverizing samples.

  • Pros: Medium volumes; cheap; low maintenance.
  • Cons: Cross-contamination risk; time consuming; lack of uniformity.

  1. Place 1-30 bees in a pre-frozen mortar of appropriate size.
  2. Add liquid nitrogen to cool samples to well below freezing.
  3. Grind the bees to a powder using an appropriate sized, pre-frozen pestle.
  4. Transfer the powder to a plastic tube or bottle.
  5. Add 500 μl extraction buffer per bee.
  6. Shake tube until the powder has suspended fully in the buffer.