Standard methods for molecular research in Apis mellifera.

Jay D Evans1*, Ryan S Schwarz1, Yan Ping Chen1, Giles Budge2, Robert S Cornman1, Pilar De la Rua3, Joachim R de Miranda4, Sylvain Foret5, Leonard Foster6, Laurent Gauthier7, Elke Genersch8 , Sebastian Gisder8, Antje Jarosch9, Robert Kucharski5, Dawn Lopez1, Cheng Man Lun10, Robin F A Moritz9, Ryszard Maleszka5, Irene Muñoz3, M Alice Pinto11.

1USDA-ARS, Bee Research Lab, BARC-E Bldg 306, Beltsville MD 20705, USA.
2National Bee Unit, Food and Environment Research Agency, Sand Hutton, York, YO41 1LZ, UK.
3Department of Zoology and Physical Anthropology, Faculty of Veterinary, University of Murcia, Spain.
4Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, 750-07 Sweden.
5Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Australia Australian National Univ. Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia.
6Centre for High Throughput Biology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
7Swiss Bee Research Centre, Agroscope Liebefeld-Posieux Research Station ALP, Bern, CH-3003, Switzerland.
8Institute for Bee Research, Friedrich-Engels-Str. 32, 16540 Hohen Neuendorf, Germany.
9Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Dept. of Biology, Molecular Ecology, Hoher Weg 4, 06099 Halle, Germany.
10George Washington University, Department of Biological Sciences, Lisner Hall 340, 20234 G St. NW, Washington, DC 20052, USA.
11Mountain Research Centre (CIMO), Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Bragança, Portugal.

Received 19 March 2012, accepted subject to revision 25 September 2012, accepted for publication 11 February 2013.

*Corresponding author: Email: