5.2.2. Infrared thermography
In insect thermoregulation research, infrared (IR) thermography provides several advantages over conventional thermometry. Most importantly, the bees do not have to be killed, as required in measurements with 'thermoneedles'. They neither need to be touched, nor impaired in their natural behaviour. Measurements on the same individual can be repeated several times, and the spatial distribution of the body surface temperature can be evaluated simultaneously (Stabentheiner et al., 1987, 2012). A 'disadvantage' is that only surface temperatures, but not internal body temperatures are obtained.