6.8.1. Video and thermography

The most direct method of activity monitoring is direct observation of behaviour and classification according to a (predefined) list of behaviours or stages of activity (Stabentheiner et al., 2003a,b). This can be combined with video analysis. If it is to judge whether or not bees are at rest, infrared video analysis with an active infrared light source allows observation in the dark. Infrared thermography provides the opportunity to simultaneously observe the bees' behaviour in complete darkness and measure their body surface temperature.