3.1.3. Tracking pollen identity

For some purposes in ecological research, target pollen or pollen bearing pollinia can be “tagged” to track pollinator dispersion range and pollination success. Morphological markers such as colour, size and shape polymorphisms may work as long as the work is limited to a few specific taxa. Early attempts to tag non polymorphic pollen were based on the use of radioisotopes or fluorescent dyes as pollen analogues (Dafni, 1992). With progress in genetic engineering, GFP-tagged pollen grains have also been used to track pollen identity in transgenic plants (Hudson et al., 2001).