3.1.4.2. Alternative methods

More expensive techniques such as electronic particle counting (Kearns and Inouye, 1993) and laser-based counters (Kawashima et al., 2007) can also be used. In some situations it is possible to directly count pollen grains on a bee’s body with a stereomicroscope (Nepi and Pacini, 1993).

The BEEBOOK