3.2.1. Identifying pollen on stigmas

Identifying pollen deposited on stigmas can provide evidence of the percentage conspecific pollen deposited and the likelihood of stigmas being clogged by pollen from other species. This constitutes perhaps the most unambiguous and precise measure of pollination success, sensu stricto. The stigmas can be collected and washed in 70% ethanol and the pollen grains released can be observed using similar procedures to those described for identifying pollen on bees (see section 3.1.). Molecular markers have also been used to identify pollen deposited on the stigma (Hasegawa et al., 2009).