4.1.3. Proportion of colony bees collecting pollen

For many flowers that are visited by both pollen and nectar foragers, pollen foragers are better pollinators (Free, 1966). Because of the close proximity of anthers and stigmas, pollen foragers are more likely than nectar foragers to touch both structures. Some bees collect both pollen and nectar on a foraging trip. The proportion of pollen and nectar foragers can be determined by observing the behaviour of foraging bees. Nectar gathers will probe the base of the petals while pollen foragers usually scrabble over the anthers.