4.1.5. Fraction of bees side-working flowers
On some flower species (almonds, apples) the flower architecture allows
bees to approach the nectaries by climbing through the anthers past the stigma
(top working bees, Fig. 10) or from the side of the flowers where the push
their tongues between the base of the anthers (side working bees, Fig. 11).
Side working bees are less likely to touch the stigma than top working bees.
The proportion of bees carrying out these behaviours varies with flower
architecture and with the experience of the bees. The data are collected by
modifying the methods given in section 5.1.
to report number of top working, or side working, bees for a given number of
flowers or measured area of crop.
Fig. 10. A top-working honey bee visiting an apple flower
Fig. 11. A side-working honey bee visiting an apple flower