8.3. Temperature and humidity

Relative humidity tends to be higher in greenhouses than in the open field. This high humidity directly affects floral rewards; the nectar sugar is more dilute since humidity affects rate of evaporative water loss. As a result, nectar sugar concentrations are sometimes below those preferred by honey bees, negatively affecting pollination activity (Dag and Eisikowich, 1999). Furthermore, at high temperatures honey bees lose heat through the evaporative cooling that occurs when they regurgitate nectar from the honey stomach (Heinrich, 1980). Temperature and relative humidity sensors therefore should be placed inside the plant foliage to follow the environmental conditions to which the flower is exposed, and somewhere above the foliage to monitor conditions to which the foragers are exposed.