5.3.2. Single drone mating

In some experiments, it is useful to minimize genetic differences among colonies in order to establish the extent of an external factor. For this aim, instrumental insemination (see the BEEBOOK paper on instrumental insemination (Cobey et al., 2013) of one or more queens with semen from a single drone can be used (spermatozoa of a single drone are genetically identical). According to the number of individuals needed for the experiment, the scientist may decide whether to inseminate up to 3 queens with semen from a single drone. However, success in single drone insemination is more likely when a single queen is inseminated. Daughter queens from the single mated queen may then be raised (they will be closely related with degree of relationship = 0.75 i.e. “super-sisters”) and according to the required level of homozigosity required in the experiment, may then be inseminated with pooled homogonous semen, or naturally mated in an isolated mating station with selected drones.