Statistical guidelines for Apis mellifera research

Authors: Christian W W Pirk, Joachim R de Miranda, Matthew Kramer, Tomás Murray, Robert J Paxton, Francesco Nazzi, Dave Shutler, Jozef J M van der Steen, Coby  van Dooremalen.

Table of contents

1. Introduction

   1.1. Types of data
   1.2. Confidence level, Type I and Type II errors, and Power
2. Sampling
   2.1. Where and when to sample a colony

      2.1.1. When to sample?
      2.1.2. Where to sample?
   2.2. Probability of pathogen detection in a honey bee colony
      2.2.1. Probability of pathogen detection in a colony based on a known sample size
      2.2.2. Probability of pathogen detection in a population of colonies
      2.2.3. Extrapolating from sample to colony
3. Experimental Design
   3.1. Factors influencing sample size

      3.1.1. Laboratory constraints
      3.1.2. Independence of observation and pseudo-replication
      3.1.3. Effect size
   3.2. Sample size determination
      3.2.1. Power analyses and rules of thumb
      3.2.2. Simulation approaches
      3.2.3. Sample size and individual infection rates
4. A worked example
5. Statistical analyses
   5.1. How to choose a simple statistical test

      5.1.1 Tests for normality and homogeneity of variances
   5.2. Generalised Linear Mixed Models (GLMM)
      5.2.1. General advice for using GLMMs
      5.2.2. GLMM where the response variable is mortality
      5.2.3. Over-dispersion in GLMM
   5.3. Accounting for multiple comparisons
   5.4. Principal components to reduce the number of explanatory variables
   5.5. Robust statistics
   5.6. Resampling techniques
6. Presentation and reporting of data
7. Which software to use for statistical analyses?
8. Where to find help with statistics
9. Conclusion
10. Acknowledgements

11. References