2.2.1. Sample size

It appears reasonable to collect enough bees to enable analysis of the sample with a combination of methods. Whereas for most molecular methods one bee per colony is sufficient for analysis, 15 bees are recommended for morphometric analysis and 10 should be analysed at the minimum (Table 3). In fact, the number of bees needed in morphometry depends on the degree of intracolonial variation, and is higher for variable traits such as colours, but can be reduced to 5 with more stable traits as wing venation (Alpatov, 1929, Radloff et al., 2003). For all methods discussed here, the bees are destroyed during analysis and therefore sampling of about 30 to 40 workers per colony appears adequate.

Table 3. Morphometric characters in current use. For characters described in Ruttner (1988), character numbers are given, with abbreviations according to Ruttner et al. (1978) in brackets. Author numbers give sources of description, with original descriptions where possible. Characters used in the Dawino method are described in www.beedol.cz and Bouga et al. (2011), and abbreviations are given. Other authors: 1 Alpatov, 1928, 1929; 2 Goetze,1964; 3 Dupraw, 1964; 4 Ruttner et al., 1978, 10 http://apiclass.mnhn.fr and Miguel et al., 2010. Abbreviations suggested in the last column are merged from several sources to reflect common use, but in places have been modified to increase understandability and consistency. Characters recommended to measure are in printed in bold.

Character

Ruttner  

DAWINO  

Other authors  

Abbreviations   

HAIR

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Length of cover hair on tergite 5

1 (h)

 

2

HLT5

Width of tomentum on tergite 4

2 (a)

 

2

TOM A


Width of stripe posterior of tomentum  

3 (b)

 

2

TOM B

Tomentum index

(2:3)

 

4

TI

 

 

 

 

 

SIZE

 

 

 

 

Proboscis

4

 

1

PROBL

Femur

5 (Fe)

 

1

FEM

Tibia

6 (Ti)

 

1

TIB

Basitarsus length

7 (ML)

 

1

TAL

Basitarsus width

8 (MT)

 

1

TAW

Tergite 3, longitudinal

9 (T3)

 

1

T3

Tergite 4, longitudinal

10 (T4)

 

1

T4

Sternite 3, longitudinal

11 (S3)

 

1

LS3

Wax mirror of sternite 3 longitudinal

12 (WL)

 

1

WML

Wax mirror of stemite 3, transversal.

13 (WT)

 

1

WMT

Distance between wax mirrors st. 3

14 (WD)

 

4

WD

Stemite 6, longitudinal

15 (L6)

 

4

S6L

Sternite 6, transversal

16 (T6)

 

4

S6T

Length of hind leg

(5+6+7)

 

4

LEG

Body size

(9+6)

 

4

BODY

Slenderness index

(15:16)

 

4

SLENI

Basitarsal index

(7:8)

 

1

TAI

 

 

 

 

 

COLOR

 

 

 

 

Pigmentation of tergite 2

32

 

2

PT2

Pigmentation of tergite 3

33

 

2

PT3

Pigmentation of tergite 4

34

 

2

PT4

Pigmentation of scutellum, Cupolla

35 (Sc)

 

4

PSC1

Pigmentation of scutellum, B and K

36 (B, K)

 

4

PSC2

 

 

 

 

 

WING

 

 

 

 

Fore wing

 

 

 

 

Fore wing length.

17 (FL)

 

1

FWL

Fore wing  width.

18 (FW)

 

1

FWW

Cubital vein, distance a

19 (a)

Len A

2

CUBA

Cubital vein, distance b

20 (b)

Len B

2

CUBB

20 points at venation junctions

 

 

10

 

Radial field

 

Radial 1

 

RAD1

Length C

 

Len C

 

LENC

Length D

 

Len D

 

LEND

Inner wing length

 

Inn. len.

 

INLEN

Inner wing width

 

Inn. wid.

 

INWID

Wing angle A1 

 

A1

3

A1

Wing angle A4 

21 (A4)

A1

3

A4

Wing angle B3 

 

B3

3

B3

Wing angle B4 

22 (B4)

B4

3

B4

Wing angle D7 

23 (D7)

D7

3

D7

Wing angle E9 

24 (E9)

E9

3

E9

Wing angle G7 

 

G7

3

G7

Wing angle G18 

25 (G18)

J10

3

J10

Wing angle H12 

 

H12

3

H12

Wing angle J10 

26 (J10)

J10

3

J10

Wing angle J16 

27 (J16)

J16

3

J16

Wing angle K19 

28 (K19)

K19

3

K19

Wing angle L13 

29 (L13)

L13

3

L13

Wing angle M17 

 

M17

3

M17

Wing angle N23 

30 (N23)

N23

3

N23

Wing angle O26 

31 (O26)

O26

3

O26

Wing angle Q21 

21

Q21

3

Q21

Discoidal shift

 

Disc. sh.

2

DISCSH

Cubital index

 

Ci

2

CI

Precubital index

 

Pci

2

PCI

Dumb-bell index

 

Dbi

2

DBI

Radial index

 

Ri

2

RI

Area of 6 fields

 

Area6

 

AREA6

 

 

 

 

 

Hind wing

 

 

 

 

Hind wing length

 

 

1

HWL

Hind wing width

 

 

1

HWL

Number of Hamuli

 

 

1

HA

 

ADDITIONAL CHARACTERS RARELY MEASURED

head capsule width and length, antenna length and number of segments, compound eyes length and width, interocellar and oculo-ocellar distance, Pigmentation of labrum, mandible length, proboscis postmentum, glossae, proximal and distal segment length, thorax width, pollen basket size and area, brush hair rows number and sting shaft length