22.214.171.124.1. Classical wing morphometry
Classical wing morphometry captures variation in wing shape by
calculating 11 angles between 18 junctions in the wing venation (Fig. 1) which
constitute a subset of a suite of 17 angles first introduced into bee
morphometry by DuPraw (1965). The DAWINO method consists of the full set of
DuPraw’s angles, supplemented by 7 linear measurements, 5 indices, and one area
(Table 3). All these angles and other parameters are considered as measurement
characters in further analysis, where they can be combined with measurements of
body characters. In the past decade, these somehow idiosyncratic morphometric
methods for the bee-wing were increasingly replaced in a number of studies by
"geometric morphometry", based on the theory of shape, which is
explained here in more detail.
Fig. 1. Wing angles in classical wing morphometry (Ruttner, 1988).