3.1.1.2.1. Classical wing morphometry

Classical wing morphometry captures variation in wing shape by calculating 11 angles between 18 junctions in the wing venation (Fig. 1) which constitute a subset of a suite of 17 angles first introduced into bee morphometry by DuPraw (1965). The DAWINO method consists of the full set of DuPraw’s angles, supplemented by 7 linear measurements, 5 indices, and one area (Table 3). All these angles and other parameters are considered as measurement characters in further analysis, where they can be combined with measurements of body characters. In the past decade, these somehow idiosyncratic morphometric methods for the bee-wing were increasingly replaced in a number of studies by "geometric morphometry", based on the theory of shape, which is explained here in more detail.

Fig. 1. Wing angles in classical wing morphometry (Ruttner, 1988).

12117VD revised Fig 1