The health of the individual or colony can influence the level of poisoning, especially regarding aggravation by or recovery from the toxin. For the honey bee, contact with the toxin can be more frequent during certain activities (for instance, foraging or nursing), thus requiring an acceptable state of health if the impacts of the toxins are to be overcome. The penetration kinetics of the toxin is made easier when injuries are present, for instance broken setae or loss of the epicuticular waxes. The integrity of the intestinal wall and the quantity/quality of the gut flora play an important role in the penetration of the toxin into the body via the digestive route. The fat bodies can trap lypophilic toxins and are important sites of detoxication. Furthermore, the pathogenic action of parasites or microbes influences the severity of poisoning if it modifies the penetration abilities of the toxin, the detoxication capacities, and/or the proteic and energetic metabolisms (Hodgson, 2004). In particular, the interactions between Nosema spp. and insecticides have been documented (Ladas, 1972; Alaux et al., 2010; Vidau et al., 2011). Conversely numerous pesticides can have extended general effects, for instance if they inhibit neurosecretion or cellular energy production, impairing the physiology of all the tissues. Bendahou et al. (1997), for example, showed that pyrethroids act by decreasing lysozyme concentration and phagocytosis capabilities, thus explaining the observed upsurge of Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus or other diseases in studied honey bees.